Evaluation of a Tutorial Designed to Promote Academic Integrity
AbstractAcademic integrity violations undermine principles of integrity and the quality of education. Reducing the prevalence of dishonesty in scholarly work requires a multi-faceted approach (Stephens, 2016), which may include the implementation of e-learning tutorials. Tutorials and other brief educational interventions increase students’ perceived knowledge and understanding of academic integrity and related topics (Stoesz & Yudintseva, 2018); however, it is unclear from the literature which students benefit most from completing them. In two studies, secondary (i.e., middle and high) school students were recruited to complete an e-learning tutorial and surveys about academic integrity, approaches to learning, motivation for learning, and personality. 88 students participated in an online study, but only 15 participants completed the tutorial. Knowledge and perceived seriousness of academic integrity violations increased significantly in this small sample; these changes were not evident in the remaining participants. A follow-up study with 90 students tested in face-to-face classroom sessions confirmed the results of the first study. Moreover, the changes in perception were larger for the youngest and oldest participants compared to the middle age group, and were correlated with use of deep learning strategies and agreeableness. Overall, the findings provide evidence for the effectiveness of academic integrity tutorials, and suggest individual difference factors must be considered when designing and implementing brief educational interventions. Examining behaviour change and long-term outcomes for secondary school students, and exploring the influences of learning environment and teacher characteristics on learning the values of academic integrity are important avenues for future research.
Anderman, E. M., Griesinger, T., & Westerfield, G. (1998). Motivation and cheating during early adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(1), 84–93. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-06126.96.36.199
Barry, E. S. (2006). Can paraphrasing practice help students define plagiarism? College Student Journal, 40(2), 377–384. Retrieved from http://www.projectinnovation.biz/csj.html
Bidjerano, T., & Dai, D. Y. (2007). The relationship between the big-five model of personality and self-regulated learning strategies. Learning and Individual Differences, 17(1), 69–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2007.02.001
Biggs, J., Kember, D., & Leung, D. Y. P. (2001). The revised two-factor Study Process Questionnaire: R-SPQ-2F. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71(1), 133–149. https://doi.org/10.1348/000709901158433
Birks, M., Smithson, J., Antney, J., Zhao, L., & Burkot, C. (2018). Exploring the paradox: A cross-sectional study of academic dishonesty among Australian nursing students. Nurse Education Today, 65, 96–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2018.02.040
Bryan, C. J., Adams, G. S., & Monin, B. (2013). When cheating would make you a cheater: Implicating the self prevents unethical behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(4), 1001–1005. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030655
Credé, M., & Phillips, L. A. (2011). A meta-analytic review of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(4), 337–346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2011.03.002
Curtis, G. J., & Clare, J. (2017). How prevalent is contract cheating and to what extent are students repeat offenders? Journal of Academic Ethics, 15(2), 115–124. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10805-017-9278-x
Damon, W., & Hart, D. (1992). Self-understanding and its role in social and moral development. In M. H. Bornstein & M. E. Lamb (Eds.), Developmental psychology: An advanced textbook (3rd ed., pp. 421–464). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Dee, T. S., & Jacob, B. A. (2012). Rational ignorance in education: A field experiment in student plagiarism. Journal of Human Resources, 47(2), 397–434. https://doi.org/10.1353/jhr.2012.0012
Dembo, M. H., & Eaton, M. J. (2000). Self-Regulation of Academic Learning in Middle-Level Schools. The Elementary School Journal, 100(5), 473–490. https://doi.org/10.1086/499651
Eaton, S. E. (2018). Contract cheating: A Canadian perspective. Retrieved December 21, 2018, from https://blogs.biomedcentral.com/bmcblog/2018/07/24/contract-cheating-a-canadian-perspective/
Eaton, S. E., & Edino, R. I. (2018). Strengthening the research agenda of educational integrity in Canada: A review of the research literature and call to action. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 14(1), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40979-018-0028-7
Finn, K. V., & Frone, M. R. (2004). Academic performance and cheating: Moderating role of school identification and self-efficacy. The Journal of Educational Research, 97(3), 115–121. https://doi.org/10.3200/JOER.97.3.115-121
Flowerday, T., & Schraw, G. (2003). Effect of choice on cognitive and affective engagement. Journal of Educational Research, 96, 207–215.
Galloway, M. K. (2012). Cheating in advantaged high schools: Prevalence, justifications, and possibilities for change. Ethics and Behavior, 22(5), 378–399. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508422.2012.679143
Galloway, M. K., & Conner, J. (2015). Perpetuating privilege: Students’ perspectives on the culture of a high-performing and high-pressure high school. The Educational Forum, 79(2), 99–115. https://doi.org/doi:10.1080/00131725.2014.1002592
Hogan, J., & Hogan, R. (1989). How to measure employee reliability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(2), 273–279. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.74.2.273
Hughes, J. M. C., & McCabe, D. (2006). Academic misconduct within higher education in Canada. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 36(2), 1–21.
Jackson, P. A. (2006). Plagiarism instruction online: Assessing undergraduate students’ ability to avoid plagiarism. College Research Libraries, 67, 418–428. https://doi.org/10.5860/crl.67.5.418
Josephson Institute Center for Youth Ethics. (2012). 2012 report card on the ethics of American youth - honesty, 2–3. Retrieved from http://charactercounts.org/programs/reportcard/2012/installment_report-card_honesty-integrity.html
Jurdi, R., Hage, H. S., & Chow, H. P. H. (2011). Academic dishonesty in the Canadian classroom: Behaviours of a sample of university students. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 41(3), 1–35.
Kirsch, B. A., & Bradley, L. (2012). Distance education and plagiarism prevention at the University of South Carolina Upstate. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 6(2), 79–99. https://doi.org/10.1080/1533290X.2012.693903
Kisamore, J. L., Stone, T. H., & Jawahar, I. M. (2007). Academic integrity: The relationship between individual and situational factors on misconduct contemplations. Journal of Business Ethics, 75(4), 381–394. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-006-9260-9
Kueh, H. N., & Ahmad, R. (2014). Motivation to improve work through learning: A conceptual model. International Journal of Management, Knowledge, and Learning, 3(2), 181–200.
Landau, J. D., Druen, P. B., & Arcuri, J. A. (2002). Methods for Helping Students Avoid Plagiarism. Teaching of Psychology, 29(2), 112–115. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328023TOP2902_06
Landers, R. N., & Callan, R. C. (2011). Casual social games as serious games: The psychology of gamification in undergraduate education and employee training. In Serious games and edutainment applications (pp. 399–423). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-2161-9
Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2014). The Dark Triad, the Big Five, and the HEXACO model. Personality and Individual Differences, 67, 2–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.01.048
Liu, G.-Z., Lo, H.-Y., & Wang, H.-C. (2013). Design and usability testing of a learning and plagiarism avoidance tutorial system for paraphrasing and citing in English: A case study. Computers and Education, 69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2013.06.011
Ma, Y., Mccabe, D. L., & Liu, R. (2013). Students ’ academic cheating in Chinese universities: Prevalence, influencing factors, and proposed action, 169–184. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10805-013-9186-7
Mazar, N., Amir, O., & Ariely, D. (2008). The dishonesty of honest people: A theory of self-concept maintenance. Journal of Marketing Research, 45(6), 633–644. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.45.6.633
Mccabe, D. L. (2005). Cheating among college and university students: A North American perspective. International Journal of Educational Integrity, 1(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.21913/IJEI.V1I1.14
McCabe, D. L., & Pavela, G. (2004). Ten (updated) principles of academic integrity: How faculty can foster student honesty. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 36(3), 10–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/00091380409605574
McCabe, D. L., & Trevino, L. K. (1995). Cheating among business students: A challenge for business leaders and educators. Journal of Management Education, 19(2), 205–218. https://doi.org/10.1177/105256299501900205
Mccrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(1), 81–90. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.52
Miller, P. H., Baxter, S. D., Royer, J. A., Hitchcock, D. B., Smith, A. F., Collins, K. L., … Finney, C. J. (2015). Children’s social desirability: Effects of test assessment mode. Personality and Individual Differences, 83, 85–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.03.039
Minarcik, J., & Bridges, A. J. (2015). Psychology graduate students weigh in: Qualitative analysis of academic dishonesty and suggestion prevention strategies. Journal of Academic Ethics, 13, 197–216. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10805-015-9230-x
Morgan, L., & Hart, L. (2013). Promoting academic integrity in RN-BSN program. Nursing Education Perspectives, 34(4), 240–243. https://doi.org/10.5480/1536-5026-34.4.240
Naquin, S. S., & Iii, E. F. H. (2002). The effects of personality, affectivity, and work commitment on motivation to to improve work through learning. Development, 13(4), 357–376. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.1038
Nathanson, C., Paulhus, D. L., & Williams, K. M. (2006). Predictors of a behavioral measure of scholastic cheating: Personality and competence but not demographics. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 31(1), 97–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2005.03.001
Newton, P. M. (2016). Academic integrity: A quantitative study of confidence and understanding in students at the start of their higher education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 41(3), 482–497. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2015.1024199
Newton, P. M. (2018). How common is commercial contract cheating in higher education and is it increasing? A systematic review. Frontiers in Education, 3(August), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2018.00067
Nonis, S., & Swift, C. O. (2001). An examination of the relationship between academic dishonesty and workplace dishonesty: A multicampus investigation. Journal of Education for Business, 77(2), 69–77. https://doi.org/10.1080/08832320109599052
Norton, L. S., Tilley, A. J., Newstead, S. E., & Franklyn-Stokes, A. (2001). The pressures of assessment in undergraduate courses and their effect on student behaviours. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 26(3), 269–284. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602930120052422
Orosz, G., Tóth-Király, I., Bóthe, B., Kusztor, A., Kovács, Z. üllei, & Jánvári, M. (2015). Teacher enthusiasm: A potential cure of academic cheating. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 318–330. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00318
Paulhus, D. L., & Dubois, P. J. (2015). The link between cognitive ability and scholastic cheating: A meta-analysis. Review of General Psychology, 19(2), 183–190. https://doi.org/10.1037/gpr0000040
Paulhus, D. L., & Vazire, S. (2007). The self-report method. In R. W. Robins, R. C. Fraley, & R. F. Krueger (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in personality psychology (pp. 224–239). New York: Guilford.
Peled, Y., Eshet, Y., Barczyk, C., & Grinautski, K. (2019). Predictors of Academic Dishonesty among undergraduate students in online and face-to-face courses. Computers & Education, 131, 49–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2018.05.012
Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F., Duncan, T., & Mckeachie, W. J. (1991). A manual for the use of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Ann Arbor. Michigan, 1–80. https://doi.org/ED338122
Rammstedt, B., & John, O. P. (2007). Measuring personality in one minute or less: A 10-item short version of the Big Five Inventory in English and German. Journal of Research in Personality, 41(1), 203–212.
Roeser, R. W., Eccles, J. S., & Sameroff, A. J. (2000). Summary of
research findings early adolescents’ development: A summary of research findings. The Elelmentary School Journal, 100(5), 443–471. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0083-6729(09)81006-6
Rogerson, A. M. (2017). Detecting contract cheating in essay and report submissions: Process, patterns, clues and conversations. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 13(1), 10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40979-017-0021-6
Sheard, J., Markham, S., & Dick, M. (2003). Investigating differences in cheating behaviours of IT undergraduate and graduate students: The maturity and motivation factors. Higher Education Research & Development, 4360(1), 91–108. https://doi.org/10.1080/0729436032000056526
Sisti, D. A. (2007). How do high school students justify internet plagiarism? Ethics & Behavior, 17(3), 215–231. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508420701519163
Smedley, A., Crawford, T., & Cloete, L. (2015). An intervention aimed at reducing plagiarism in undergraduate nursing students. Nurse Education in Practice, 15(3), 168–173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2014.12.003
Stephens, J. M. (2016). Creating cultures of integrity: A multi-level intervention model for promoting academic honesty. In Handbook of Academic Integrity (pp. 996–1003). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-287-098-8
Stoesz, B. M., & Yudintseva, A. (2018). Effectiveness of tutorials for promoting educational integrity: A synthesis paper. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 14(1), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40979-018-0030-0
Strom, P. S., & Strom, R. D. (2007). Cheating in middle school and high school. The Educational Forum, 71(2), 104–116. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131720708984924
Vermetten, Y. J., Lodewijks, H. G., & Vermunt, J. D. (2001). The role of personality traits and goal orientations in strategy use. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 26(2), 149–170. https://doi.org/10.1006/CEPS.1999.1042
Whitley, B. E., Nelson, A. B., & Jones, C. J. (1999). Gender differences in cheating attitudes and classroom cheating behavior: A meta-analysis. Sex Roles, 41(9–10), 657–677. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018863909149
Williams, K. M., Nathanson, C., & Paulhus, D. L. (2010). Identifying and profiling scholastic cheaters: Their personality, cognitive ability, and motivation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 16(3), 293–307. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020773
Yunyongying, P. (2014). Gamification: Implications for curricular design. Journal of Graduate Medical Education, 6(3), 410–412. https://doi.org/10.4300/JGME-D-13-00406.1
Zivcakova, L., & Wood, E. (2014). Exploring instructional interventions: Encouraging academic integrity through active learning approaches. In M. Li & Y. Zhao (Eds.), Exploring Learning & Teaching in Higher Education. New Frontiers of Educational Research (pp. 191–205). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-55352-3_19