Evaluation of a Tutorial Designed to Promote Academic Integrity

Brenda M Stoesz, Ryan Los


Academic integrity violations undermine principles of integrity and the quality of education.  Reducing the prevalence of dishonesty in scholarly work requires a multi-faceted approach (Stephens, 2016), which may include the implementation of e-learning tutorials.  Tutorials and other brief educational interventions increase students’ perceived knowledge and understanding of academic integrity and related topics (Stoesz & Yudintseva, 2018); however, it is unclear from the literature which students benefit most from completing them.  In two studies, secondary (i.e., middle and high) school students were recruited to complete an e-learning tutorial and surveys about academic integrity, approaches to learning, motivation for learning, and personality.  88 students participated in an online study, but only 15 participants completed the tutorial.  Knowledge and perceived seriousness of academic integrity violations increased significantly in this small sample; these changes were not evident in the remaining participants.  A follow-up study with 90 students tested in face-to-face classroom sessions confirmed the results of the first study.  Moreover, the changes in perception were larger for the youngest and oldest participants compared to the middle age group, and were correlated with use of deep learning strategies and agreeableness.  Overall, the findings provide evidence for the effectiveness of academic integrity tutorials, and suggest individual difference factors must be considered when designing and implementing brief educational interventions.  Examining behaviour change and long-term outcomes for secondary school students, and exploring the influences of learning environment and teacher characteristics on learning the values of academic integrity are important avenues for future research.


academic integrity; Canada; cheating; education; e-learning tutorial; intervention; secondary school; teaching strategy

Full Text:



Anderman, E. M., Griesinger, T., & Westerfield, G. (1998). Motivation and cheating during early adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(1), 84–93. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.90.1.84

Barry, E. S. (2006). Can paraphrasing practice help students define plagiarism? College Student Journal, 40(2), 377–384. Retrieved from http://www.projectinnovation.biz/csj.html

Bidjerano, T., & Dai, D. Y. (2007). The relationship between the big-five model of personality and self-regulated learning strategies. Learning and Individual Differences, 17(1), 69–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2007.02.001

Biggs, J., Kember, D., & Leung, D. Y. P. (2001). The revised two-factor Study Process Questionnaire: R-SPQ-2F. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71(1), 133–149. https://doi.org/10.1348/000709901158433

Birks, M., Smithson, J., Antney, J., Zhao, L., & Burkot, C. (2018). Exploring the paradox: A cross-sectional study of academic dishonesty among Australian nursing students. Nurse Education Today, 65, 96–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2018.02.040

Bryan, C. J., Adams, G. S., & Monin, B. (2013). When cheating would make you a cheater: Implicating the self prevents unethical behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(4), 1001–1005. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030655

Credé, M., & Phillips, L. A. (2011). A meta-analytic review of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(4), 337–346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2011.03.002

Curtis, G. J., & Clare, J. (2017). How prevalent is contract cheating and to what extent are students repeat offenders? Journal of Academic Ethics, 15(2), 115–124. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10805-017-9278-x

Damon, W., & Hart, D. (1992). Self-understanding and its role in social and moral development. In M. H. Bornstein & M. E. Lamb (Eds.), Developmental psychology: An advanced textbook (3rd ed., pp. 421–464). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Dee, T. S., & Jacob, B. A. (2012). Rational ignorance in education: A field experiment in student plagiarism. Journal of Human Resources, 47(2), 397–434. https://doi.org/10.1353/jhr.2012.0012

Dembo, M. H., & Eaton, M. J. (2000). Self-Regulation of Academic Learning in Middle-Level Schools. The Elementary School Journal, 100(5), 473–490. https://doi.org/10.1086/499651

Eaton, S. E. (2018). Contract cheating: A Canadian perspective. Retrieved December 21, 2018, from https://blogs.biomedcentral.com/bmcblog/2018/07/24/contract-cheating-a-canadian-perspective/

Eaton, S. E., & Edino, R. I. (2018). Strengthening the research agenda of educational integrity in Canada: A review of the research literature and call to action. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 14(1), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40979-018-0028-7

Finn, K. V., & Frone, M. R. (2004). Academic performance and cheating: Moderating role of school identification and self-efficacy. The Journal of Educational Research, 97(3), 115–121. https://doi.org/10.3200/JOER.97.3.115-121

Flowerday, T., & Schraw, G. (2003). Effect of choice on cognitive and affective engagement. Journal of Educational Research, 96, 207–215.

Galloway, M. K. (2012). Cheating in advantaged high schools: Prevalence, justifications, and possibilities for change. Ethics and Behavior, 22(5), 378–399. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508422.2012.679143

Galloway, M. K., & Conner, J. (2015). Perpetuating privilege: Students’ perspectives on the culture of a high-performing and high-pressure high school. The Educational Forum, 79(2), 99–115. https://doi.org/doi:10.1080/00131725.2014.1002592

Hogan, J., & Hogan, R. (1989). How to measure employee reliability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(2), 273–279. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.74.2.273

Hughes, J. M. C., & McCabe, D. (2006). Academic misconduct within higher education in Canada. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 36(2), 1–21.

Jackson, P. A. (2006). Plagiarism instruction online: Assessing undergraduate students’ ability to avoid plagiarism. College Research Libraries, 67, 418–428. https://doi.org/10.5860/crl.67.5.418

Josephson Institute Center for Youth Ethics. (2012). 2012 report card on the ethics of American youth - honesty, 2–3. Retrieved from http://charactercounts.org/programs/reportcard/2012/installment_report-card_honesty-integrity.html

Jurdi, R., Hage, H. S., & Chow, H. P. H. (2011). Academic dishonesty in the Canadian classroom: Behaviours of a sample of university students. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 41(3), 1–35.

Kirsch, B. A., & Bradley, L. (2012). Distance education and plagiarism prevention at the University of South Carolina Upstate. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 6(2), 79–99. https://doi.org/10.1080/1533290X.2012.693903

Kisamore, J. L., Stone, T. H., & Jawahar, I. M. (2007). Academic integrity: The relationship between individual and situational factors on misconduct contemplations. Journal of Business Ethics, 75(4), 381–394. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-006-9260-9

Kueh, H. N., & Ahmad, R. (2014). Motivation to improve work through learning: A conceptual model. International Journal of Management, Knowledge, and Learning, 3(2), 181–200.

Landau, J. D., Druen, P. B., & Arcuri, J. A. (2002). Methods for Helping Students Avoid Plagiarism. Teaching of Psychology, 29(2), 112–115. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328023TOP2902_06

Landers, R. N., & Callan, R. C. (2011). Casual social games as serious games: The psychology of gamification in undergraduate education and employee training. In Serious games and edutainment applications (pp. 399–423). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-2161-9

Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2014). The Dark Triad, the Big Five, and the HEXACO model. Personality and Individual Differences, 67, 2–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.01.048

Liu, G.-Z., Lo, H.-Y., & Wang, H.-C. (2013). Design and usability testing of a learning and plagiarism avoidance tutorial system for paraphrasing and citing in English: A case study. Computers and Education, 69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2013.06.011

Ma, Y., Mccabe, D. L., & Liu, R. (2013). Students ’ academic cheating in Chinese universities: Prevalence, influencing factors, and proposed action, 169–184. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10805-013-9186-7

Mazar, N., Amir, O., & Ariely, D. (2008). The dishonesty of honest people: A theory of self-concept maintenance. Journal of Marketing Research, 45(6), 633–644. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.45.6.633

Mccabe, D. L. (2005). Cheating among college and university students: A North American perspective. International Journal of Educational Integrity, 1(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.21913/IJEI.V1I1.14

McCabe, D. L., & Pavela, G. (2004). Ten (updated) principles of academic integrity: How faculty can foster student honesty. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 36(3), 10–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/00091380409605574

McCabe, D. L., & Trevino, L. K. (1995). Cheating among business students: A challenge for business leaders and educators. Journal of Management Education, 19(2), 205–218. https://doi.org/10.1177/105256299501900205

Mccrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(1), 81–90. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.52.1.81

Miller, P. H., Baxter, S. D., Royer, J. A., Hitchcock, D. B., Smith, A. F., Collins, K. L., … Finney, C. J. (2015). Children’s social desirability: Effects of test assessment mode. Personality and Individual Differences, 83, 85–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.03.039

Minarcik, J., & Bridges, A. J. (2015). Psychology graduate students weigh in: Qualitative analysis of academic dishonesty and suggestion prevention strategies. Journal of Academic Ethics, 13, 197–216. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10805-015-9230-x

Morgan, L., & Hart, L. (2013). Promoting academic integrity in RN-BSN program. Nursing Education Perspectives, 34(4), 240–243. https://doi.org/10.5480/1536-5026-34.4.240

Naquin, S. S., & Iii, E. F. H. (2002). The effects of personality, affectivity, and work commitment on motivation to to improve work through learning. Development, 13(4), 357–376. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.1038

Nathanson, C., Paulhus, D. L., & Williams, K. M. (2006). Predictors of a behavioral measure of scholastic cheating: Personality and competence but not demographics. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 31(1), 97–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2005.03.001

Newton, P. M. (2016). Academic integrity: A quantitative study of confidence and understanding in students at the start of their higher education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 41(3), 482–497. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2015.1024199

Newton, P. M. (2018). How common is commercial contract cheating in higher education and is it increasing? A systematic review. Frontiers in Education, 3(August), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2018.00067

Nonis, S., & Swift, C. O. (2001). An examination of the relationship between academic dishonesty and workplace dishonesty: A multicampus investigation. Journal of Education for Business, 77(2), 69–77. https://doi.org/10.1080/08832320109599052

Norton, L. S., Tilley, A. J., Newstead, S. E., & Franklyn-Stokes, A. (2001). The pressures of assessment in undergraduate courses and their effect on student behaviours. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 26(3), 269–284. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602930120052422

Orosz, G., Tóth-Király, I., Bóthe, B., Kusztor, A., Kovács, Z. üllei, & Jánvári, M. (2015). Teacher enthusiasm: A potential cure of academic cheating. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 318–330. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00318

Paulhus, D. L., & Dubois, P. J. (2015). The link between cognitive ability and scholastic cheating: A meta-analysis. Review of General Psychology, 19(2), 183–190. https://doi.org/10.1037/gpr0000040

Paulhus, D. L., & Vazire, S. (2007). The self-report method. In R. W. Robins, R. C. Fraley, & R. F. Krueger (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in personality psychology (pp. 224–239). New York: Guilford.

Peled, Y., Eshet, Y., Barczyk, C., & Grinautski, K. (2019). Predictors of Academic Dishonesty among undergraduate students in online and face-to-face courses. Computers & Education, 131, 49–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2018.05.012

Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F., Duncan, T., & Mckeachie, W. J. (1991). A manual for the use of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Ann Arbor. Michigan, 1–80. https://doi.org/ED338122

Rammstedt, B., & John, O. P. (2007). Measuring personality in one minute or less: A 10-item short version of the Big Five Inventory in English and German. Journal of Research in Personality, 41(1), 203–212.

Roeser, R. W., Eccles, J. S., & Sameroff, A. J. (2000). Summary of

research findings early adolescents’ development: A summary of research findings. The Elelmentary School Journal, 100(5), 443–471. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0083-6729(09)81006-6

Rogerson, A. M. (2017). Detecting contract cheating in essay and report submissions: Process, patterns, clues and conversations. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 13(1), 10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40979-017-0021-6

Sheard, J., Markham, S., & Dick, M. (2003). Investigating differences in cheating behaviours of IT undergraduate and graduate students: The maturity and motivation factors. Higher Education Research & Development, 4360(1), 91–108. https://doi.org/10.1080/0729436032000056526

Sisti, D. A. (2007). How do high school students justify internet plagiarism? Ethics & Behavior, 17(3), 215–231. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508420701519163

Smedley, A., Crawford, T., & Cloete, L. (2015). An intervention aimed at reducing plagiarism in undergraduate nursing students. Nurse Education in Practice, 15(3), 168–173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2014.12.003

Stephens, J. M. (2016). Creating cultures of integrity: A multi-level intervention model for promoting academic honesty. In Handbook of Academic Integrity (pp. 996–1003). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-287-098-8

Stoesz, B. M., & Yudintseva, A. (2018). Effectiveness of tutorials for promoting educational integrity: A synthesis paper. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 14(1), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40979-018-0030-0

Strom, P. S., & Strom, R. D. (2007). Cheating in middle school and high school. The Educational Forum, 71(2), 104–116. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131720708984924

Vermetten, Y. J., Lodewijks, H. G., & Vermunt, J. D. (2001). The role of personality traits and goal orientations in strategy use. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 26(2), 149–170. https://doi.org/10.1006/CEPS.1999.1042

Whitley, B. E., Nelson, A. B., & Jones, C. J. (1999). Gender differences in cheating attitudes and classroom cheating behavior: A meta-analysis. Sex Roles, 41(9–10), 657–677. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018863909149

Williams, K. M., Nathanson, C., & Paulhus, D. L. (2010). Identifying and profiling scholastic cheaters: Their personality, cognitive ability, and motivation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 16(3), 293–307. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020773

Yunyongying, P. (2014). Gamification: Implications for curricular design. Journal of Graduate Medical Education, 6(3), 410–412. https://doi.org/10.4300/JGME-D-13-00406.1

Zivcakova, L., & Wood, E. (2014). Exploring instructional interventions: Encouraging academic integrity through active learning approaches. In M. Li & Y. Zhao (Eds.), Exploring Learning & Teaching in Higher Education. New Frontiers of Educational Research (pp. 191–205). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-55352-3_19

DOI: https://doi.org/10.11575/cpai.v2i1.61826

DOI (PDF): https://doi.org/10.11575/cpai.v2i1.61826.g51914


  • There are currently no refbacks.