Academic Integrity and Artificial Intelligence in Higher Education (HE) Contexts: A Rapid Scoping Review




Academic Integrity, Artificial Intelligence, Higher Education, Rapid Scoping Review, Academic Misconduct, Large Language Models (LLM)


Artificial Intelligence (AI) developments challenge higher education institutions’ teaching, learning, assessment, and research practices. To contribute timely and evidence-based recommendations for upholding academic integrity, we conducted a rapid scoping review focusing on what is known about academic integrity and AI in higher education. We followed the Updated Reviewer Manual for Scoping Reviews from the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews Meta-Analysis for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) reporting standards. Five databases were searched, and the eligibility criteria included higher education stakeholders of any age and gender engaged with AI in the context of academic integrity from 2007 through November 2022 and available in English. The search retrieved 2223 records, of which 14 publications with mixed methods, qualitative, quantitative, randomized controlled trials, and text and opinion studies met the inclusion criteria. The results showed bounded and unbounded ethical implications of AI. Perspectives included: AI for cheating; AI as legitimate support; an equity, diversity, and inclusion lens into AI; and emerging recommendations to tackle AI implications in higher education. The evidence from the sources provides guidance that can inform educational stakeholders in decision-making processes for AI integration, in the analysis of misconduct cases involving AI, and in the exploration of AI as legitimate assistance. Likewise, this rapid scoping review signals key questions for future research, which we explore in our discussion.

Author Biographies

Beatriz Antonieta Moya, University of Calgary

Beatriz Moya is a Ph.D. candidate in the Werklund School of Education at the University of Calgary in the Educational Research program, specializing in Leadership. Her primary motivation as a student researcher is to contribute to the continuous transformation of higher education institutions’ cultures to pursue academic and research integrity and social justice. For this reason, Beatriz situates herself at the intersections of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL), Leadership, and Academic Integrity. In this space, Beatriz is currently involved in projects seeking to contribute to a ‘glocal’ scholarly dialogue concerning academic integrity as a teaching and learning imperative. For instance, Beatriz is exploring the situated meanings and experiential insights from academic integrity educational leaders, and is also a contributing author for a chapter on academic integrity policy in Latin America in the Handbook of Academic Integrity (2nd ed.). 

Sarah Elaine Eaton, University of Calgary

Dr. Sarah Elaine Eaton, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Education at the University of Calgary, Canada. She served as the inaugural Educational Leader in Residence, Academic Integrity at Taylor Institute for Teaching and Learning, University of Calgary. Dr. Eaton’s research focuses on academic ethics in higher education. Her work can be found in the British Educational Research Journal, the Journal of Academic Ethics, and the Journal of Educational Thought and Interchange, among other places. She is the Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal for Educational Integrity (Springer Nature) and co-founder and co-editor of Canadian Perspectives on Academic Integrity. In 2020 she received the National Research and Scholarship award from the Canadian Society for the Study of Higher Education (CSSHE) for her contributions to research on academic integrity in Canadian higher education. In 2022, she received the outstanding research award from the European Network for Academic Integrity (ENAI). Her books include Plagiarism in Higher Education: Tackling Tough Topics in Academic Integrity, Academic Integrity in Canada: An Enduring and Essential Challenge (Eaton & Christensen Hughes, eds.), Contract Cheating in Higher Education: Global Perspectives on Theory, Practice, and Policy (Eaton, Curtis, Stoesz, Clare, Rundle, & Seeland, eds.) and Ethics and Integrity in Teacher Education (Eaton & Khan, eds.). 

Helen Pethrick, University of Calgary

Helen Pethrick, MA, is a researcher and educator in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Helen’s research encompasses academic integrity in higher education, post-secondary student mental health, and mentorship in academia. Helen has interdisciplinary expertise in systematic literature review methodology, qualitative research, project management, and knowledge exchange. With Dr. Sarah Elaine Eaton and Jamie J. Carmichael, Helen is co-Editor of the volume Fake Degrees and Fraudulent Credentials in Higher Education (Eaton, Carmichael, & Pethrick, forthcoming 2023). Currently, Helen’s role is Research Associate, Academic Integrity, which involves acting as Project Manager (administrative) for the Academic Integrity and Artificial Intelligence project at the University of Calgary. 

K. Alix Hayden, University of Calgary

Dr. Alix Hayden is a Librarian at the University of Calgary.

Robert Brennan

Holds a PhD in mechanical engineering from the University of Calgary. He is a Professor of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering at the University of Calgary, holds the NSERC Chair in Design Engineering, and has served as President of the Canadian Engineering Education Association (CEEA). His research interests range from engineering education to intelligent automation and control systems.  

Jason Wiens, University of Calgary

Dr. Wiens is a Professor (Teaching) in the Department of English at the University of Calgary. His areas of research interest include contemporary poetry, Canadian literature, archival studies, literary audio, and pedagogy.  He has published articles in numerous journals including LIT: Literature Interpretation Theory, Canadian Literature, Studies on Canadian Writing, and Canadian Poetry. He has recently guest edited a special issue of English Studies in Canada on "Pedagogies of the Archive." He is currently a co-investigator on the SSHRC Partnership project The SpokenWeb, and is a co-investigator on the Academic Integrity and Artificial Intelligence project at the University of Calgary.  

Brenda McDermott, University of Calgary

Dr. McDermott completed her PhD in communication studies at the University of Calgary.  Her research involves looking at ableism embedded in teaching and learning practices, particular assessment. She regularly provided training to faculty to help creating learning environments that reflect the diversity of learners.  



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How to Cite

Moya, B., Eaton, S., Pethrick , H., Hayden, A., Brennan, R., Wiens, J., & McDermott, B. (2024). Academic Integrity and Artificial Intelligence in Higher Education (HE) Contexts: A Rapid Scoping Review. Canadian Perspectives on Academic Integrity, 7(3).



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