Text-matching software in post-secondary contexts: A systematic review protocol

Keywords: academic integrity, plagiarism, text-matching software, plagiarism detection, software, systematic review, Canada, academic misconduct, academic dishonesty, higher education


This protocol outlines the methods for our systematic review on commercial text-matching software (TMS). We propose to use Joanna Briggs Institute’s (JBI) Methodology for Mixed Methods Systematic Reviews. This systematic review will provide insights into how TMS is used in post-secondary contexts, highlighting evidence relating to how well such software reduces incidences of plagiarism, and also how it can be used for educational purposes to support student learning at the undergraduate and graduate levels.

Author Biography

Sarah Elaine Eaton, University of Calgary

Assistant Professor, Werklund School of Education

University of Calgary


Awasthi, S. (2019). Plagiarism and academic misconduct: A systematic review. DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology, 39(2), 94-100. https://doi.org/10.14429/djlit.39.2.13622

Baró-Solé, X., Guerrero-Roldan, A. E., Prieto-Blázquez, J., Rozeva, A., Marinov, O., Kiennert, C., Rocher, P-O., & Garcia-Alfaro, J. (2018). Integration of an adaptive trust-based e-assessment system into virtual learning environments—The TeSLA project experience. Internet Technology Letters, 1(4), e56. https://doi.org/10.1002/itl2.56

Baruchson-Arbib, S., & Yaari, E. (2004). Printed versus internet plagiarism: A study of students' perception. International Journal of Information Ethics, 1(1), 29-35.

Batane, T. (2010). Turning to Turnitin to fight plagiarism among university students. Educational Technology & Society, 13(2), 1-12.

Bertram Gallant, T. (2008). Academic integrity in the twenty-first century: A teaching and learning imperative. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Bischoff, W., & Ábrego, P. (2011). Rapid assessment of assignments using plagiarism detection software. Nurse Educator, 36(6), 236-237. https://doi.org/10.1097/NNE.0b013e3182333c85

Blum, S. D. (2009). My word! Plagiarism and academic college culture. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Blum, S. D. (2016). What it means to be a student today. In T. Bretag (Ed.), Handbook of academic integrity (pp. 383-406). Singapore: Springer.

Booth, A., Clarke, M., Ghersi, D., Moher, D., Petticrew, M., & Stewart, L. (2011). An international registry of systematic-review protocols. The Lancet, 377(9760), 108-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60903-8

Braumoeller, B. F., & Gaines, B. J. (2001). Actions do speak louder than words: Deterring plagiarism with the use of plagiarism-detection software. PS: Political Science and Politics, 34, 835–839. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1350278

Buckley, E., & Cowap, L. (2013). An evaluation of the use of Turnitin for electronic submission and marking and as a formative feedback tool from an educator’s perspective. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44(4), 562-570. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12054

Butakov, S., & Shcherbinin, V. (2009). The toolbox for local and global plagiarism detection. Computers & Education, 52(4), 781-788. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2008.12.001

Culwin, F., & Lancaster, T. (2001). Plagiarism, prevention, deterrence and detection. Higher Education Academy. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

Eaton, S. E., & Edino, R. I. (2018). Strengthening the research agenda of educational integrity in Canada: A review of the research literature and call to action. Journal of Educational Integrity, 14(1). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40979-018-0028-7

Edwards, C., Whitelock, D., Brouns, F., Rodríguez, M. E., Okada, A., Baneres, D., & Holmes, W. (2019). An embedded approach to plagiarism detection using the TeSLA e-authentication system. Paper presented at the TEA 2018 Technology Enhanced Assessment Conference, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Foltýnek, T., Meuschke, N., & Gipp, B. (2019). Academic plagiarism detection: A systematic literature review. ACM Computing Surveys, 52(6). Retrieved from https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3368196.3345317

Foster, A. L. (2002). Plagiarism-detection tool creates legal quandary. Chronicle of Higher Education, 48(36), A37-A38.

Gasparyan, A. Y., Nurmashev, B., Seksenbayev, B., Trukhachev, V. I., Kostyukova, E. I., & Kitas, G. D. (2017). Plagiarism in the context of education and evolving detection strategies. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 32, 1220-1227. doi: https://doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2017.32.8.1220

Halgamuge, M. N. (2017). The use and analysis of anti-plagiarism software: Turnitin tool for formative assessment and feedback. Computer Applications in Engineering Education, 25(6), 895–909. https://doi.org/10.1002/cae.21842

Hong, Q. N., Pluye, P., Fàbregues, S., Bartlett, G., Boardman, F., Cargo, M., Dagenais, P., Gagnon, M. -P., Griffiths, F., Nicolau, B., O’Cathain, A., Rousseau, M. -C., & Vedel, I. (2018). Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). Registration of Copyright (#1148552), Canadian Intellectual Property Office, Industry Canada.

Ison, D. C. (2015). The influence of the Internet on plagiarism among doctoral dissertations: An empirical study. Journal of Academic Ethics, 13(2), 151-166. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10805-015-9233-7

Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). (2014a). Methodology for mixed methods systematic reviews. http:// joannabriggs.org/assets/docs/sumari/ReviewersManual_Mixed-Methods- Review-Methods-2014-ch1.pdf.

Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). (2014b). Reviewer’s Manual. Retrieved from http://joannabriggs.org/assets/docs/sumari/ReviewersManual-2014.pdf

Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). (2017). Checklist for text and opinion. https://joannabriggs.org/sites/default/files/2019-05/JBI_Critical_Appraisal-Checklist_for_Text_and_Opinion2017_0.pdf

Kloda, L., & Nicholson, K. (2005). Plagiarism detection software and academic integrity: The Canadian perspective. Paper presented at the Librarians’ Information Literacy Annual Conference (LILAC), Imperial College London, UK.

Macfarlane, B., Zhang, J., & Pun, A. (2014). Academic integrity: A review of the literature. Studies in Higher Education, 39(2), 339-358. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2012.709495

McCabe, D. L. (1993). Faculty responses to academic dishonesty: The influence of student honor codes. Research in Higher Education, 34(5), 647-658.

McCabe, D. L. (2005). It takes a village: academic dishonesty & educational opportunity. Liberal Education, 91(3), 26-31.

McCabe, D. L., Trevino, L. K., & Butterfield, K. D. (2001). Cheating in academic institutions: A decade of research. Ethics & Behavior, 11(3), 219-232. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327019EB1103_2

McCabe, D. L., & Pavela, G. (2004). Ten (updated) principles of academic integrity: How faculty can foster student honesty. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 36(3), 10-15. https://doi.org/10.1080/00091380409605574

McKenzie, J., Beller, E., & Forbes, A. (2016). Introduction to systemtic reviews and meta-analysis. Respirology, 21(4), 626-637. doi:10.1111/resp.12783

McMurtry, K. (2001). E-Cheating: Combating a 21st century challenge. T.H.E. Journal, 29(4), 36-38,40-41.

Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D.G. The PRISMA Group. (2009). Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Statement. BMJ. 339:b2535.

Moore Howard, R. (2013). Arguing against Turnitin. Retrieved from https://rmoorehoward.wordpress.com/2013/05/04/arguing-against-turnitin/

Moore Howard, R., & Davies, L. J. (2009). Plagiarism in the Internet age. Educational Leadership, 66(6), 64-67.

Newman, M., & Gough, D. (2020). What are systematic reviews. In O. Zawacki-Richter, M. Kerres, S. Bedenlier, M. Bond, & K. Buntins (Eds.), Systematic Reviews in Educational Research: Methodology, Perspectives and Application (pp. 3-22): Springer.

Oliphant, T. (2002). Cyber-plagiarism: Plagiarism in a digital world. Feliciter, 48(2), 78.

Panning Davies, L. J., & Moore Howard, R. (2016). Plagiarism and the Internet: Fears, facts, and pedagogies. In T. Bretag (Ed.), Handbook of Academic Integrity (pp. 591-606). Singapore: Springer Singapore.

Popay, J., Roberts, H., Sowden, A., Petticrew, M., Arai, L., Rodgers, M., & Britten, N. (2006). Guidance on the conduct of narrative synthesis in systematic reviews. Institute for Health Research Lancaster: Lancaster University.

Pluye, P., & Hong, Q. N. (2014). Combining the power of stories and the power of numbers: mixed methods research and mixed studies reviews. Annual review of public health, 35, 29-45.

Sayed, N., & Lento, C. (2015). The impact of technology on academic dishonesty: Perspectives from accounting faculty (Working paper, Lakehead University). http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2655615

Shamseer, L., Moher, D., Clarke, M., Ghersi, D., Liberati, A., Petticrew, M., Shekelle, P., Stewart, L. A., & the PRISMA-P Group. (2015). Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015: Elaboration and explanation. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 349:g7647. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g7647

Stephens, J. M., Young, M. F., & Calabrese, T. (2007). Does moral judgment go offline when students are online? A comparative analysis of undergraduates' beliefs and behaviors related to conventional and digital cheating. Ethics & Behavior, 17(3), 233-254. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508420701519197

Statistics Canada. (2018). Postsecondary student information system (PSIS): Detailed information for 2016-2017. Retrieved from http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=getSurvey&SDDS=5017

Strawczynski, J. (2004). When students won't Turnitin: An examination of the use of plagiarism prevention services in Canada. Education & Law Journal, 14(2), 167-190.

Stommel, J. (2015). Who controls your dissertation? Chronical Vitae. https://chroniclevitae.com/news/852-who-controls-your-dissertation

Torgerson, C. (2003). Systematic reviews. London: Continuum.

University of York. NHS Centre for Reviews & Dissemination. (2009). Systematic reviews : CRD's guidance for undertaking reviews in health care. York: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York.

Weber-Wulff, D. (2016). Plagiarism detection software: Promises, pitfalls, and practices. In T. Bretag (Ed.), Handbook of Academic Integrity (pp. 625-638). Singapore: Springer Singapore.

Zaza, C., & McKenzie, A. (2018). Turnitin® Use at a Canadian University. Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 9(2). https://doi.org/10.5206/cjsotl-rcacea.2018.2.4

Peer Reviewed Articles