Physician Humanism in CanMEDS 2025




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Author Biographies

Heather M Waters , McMaster University

Associate Professor, Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University

Anna Oswald, University of Alberta

Professor, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta and Clinician Educator, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada

Evelyn Constantin , McGill University

Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, McGill University

J Damon Dagnone , Queen's University

Associate Professor & Medical Education Fellowship Program Director, Department of Emergency Medicine, Queen’s University


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Canadian Medical Association. CMA national physician health survey: a national snapshot [Internet]. Available from:, [Accessed Jun 5, 2022].

Robins S. Ducks in a row: health care reimagined. Vancouver, Canada: Bird Communications; 2022.

West CP, Dyrbye LN, Shanafelt TD. Physician burnout: contributors, consequences and solutions. J Intern Med [Internet]. 2018;283(6):516-29.

Frank JR, Snell L, Sherbino J, CanMEDS 2015 physician competency framework. 2015. Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada.

Dagnone JD, Takahashi SG, Whitehead CR, Spadafora SM. Reclaiming physician identity: It's time to integrate "Doctor as Person" into the CanMEDS framework. Can Med Educ J. 2020 Aug;11(4):e97-9.

Whitehead C, Selleger V, van de Kreeke J, Hodges B. The 'missing person' in roles-based competency models: a historical, cross-national, contrastive case study. Med Educ 2014;48(8):785-95.

Liao L. The physician as machine or person: the missing foundation in the CanMEDS roles. Can Med Educ J. 2020 Jul 2.

Richardson D, Kinnear B, Hauer KE, et al. Growth mindset in competency-based medical education. Med Teach. 2021 Jul;43(7):751-7.



2022-10-18 — Updated on 2023-03-21

How to Cite

Waters HM, Oswald A, Constantin E, Thoma B, Dagnone JD. Physician Humanism in CanMEDS 2025. Can. Med. Ed. J [Internet]. 2023 Mar. 21 [cited 2024 Jun. 15];14(1):13-7. Available from:



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