Clinical Reasoning in CanMEDS 2025

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DOI:

https://doi.org/10.36834/cmej.75843

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Author Biographies

Meredith Young , McGill University

PhD

Associate Professor and Associate Director: Research at the Institute of Health Sciences Education, McGill University

Adam Szulewski, Queen's University

MD, FRCP, MHPE, PhD

Queen's University

Robert Anderson , Northern Ontario School of Medicine

MD, FRCPC

Carlos Gomez-Garibello, McGill University

PhD

References

Higgs J, Jones MA, Loftus S, Christensen N, editors. Clinical reasoning in the health professions. Third. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2008. 519 p.

Thoma B, Karwowska A, Samson L, et al. Emerging concepts in the CanMEDS physician competency framework. Can Med Educ J. 2023. https://doi.org/10.36834/cmej.75591

JR, Snell L, Sherbino J Editors. CanMEDs 2015 physician competency framework. 2015 p. 1–30. Available from: http://www.royalcollege.ca/portal/page/portal/rc/canmeds/resources/publications

Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Quality of Health Care in America. To err is human: building a safer health system [Internet]. Kohn LT, Corrigan JM, Donaldson MS, editors. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2000 Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK225182/ [Accessed Jul 20, 2022].

Young ME, Thomas A, Lubarsky S, et al. Mapping clinical reasoning literature across the health professions: a scoping review. BMC Med Educ. 2020 Apr 7;20(1):107. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-020-02012-9

Young M, Thomas A, Lubarsky S, et al. Drawing boundaries: the difficulty in defining clinical reasoning. Acad Med. 2018 Jul;93(7):990–5. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000002142

Graber ML. The incidence of diagnostic error in medicine. BMJ Qual Saf. 2013 Oct 1;22(Suppl 2):ii21–7. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjqs-2012-001615

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Graber ML, Rusz D, Jones ML, Farm-Franks D, Jones B, Gluck JC, et al. The new diagnostic team. Diagnosis. 2017 Dec 1;4(4):225–38. https://doi.org/10.1515/dx-2017-0022

Durning SJ, Artino ARJ, Schuwirth L, van der Vleuten C. Clarifying assumptions to enhance our understanding and assessment of clinical reasoning. Acad Med. 2013 Apr;88(4):442–8. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0b013e3182851b5b

Braddock III CH, Edwards KA, Hasenberg NM, Laidley TL, Levinson W. Informed decision making in outpatient practice time to get back to basics. JAMA. 1999 Dec 22;282(24):2313–20. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.282.24.2313

Szulewski A, Howes D, van Merriënboer JJG, Sweller J. From theory to practice: the application of cognitive load theory to the practice of medicine. Acad Med. 2021 Jan;96(1):24–30. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000003524

Chapman EN, Kaatz A, Carnes M. Physicians and implicit bias: how doctors may unwittingly perpetuate health care disparities. J Gen Intern Med. 2013 Nov 1;28(11):1504–10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-013-2441-1

Mylopoulos M, Kulasegaram K, Woods NN. Developing the experts we need: Fostering adaptive expertise through education. J Eval Clin Pract. 2018;24(3):674–7. https://doi.org/10.1111/jep.12905

Lingard L. Paradoxical truths and persistent myths: reframing the team competence conversation. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2016 Summer;36:S19. https://doi.org/10.1097/CEH.0000000000000078

Cristancho S, Field E, Lingard L. What is the state of complexity science in medical education research? Med Educ. 2019;53(1):95–104. https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13651

Young ME, Dory V, Lubarsky S, Thomas A. How different theories of clinical reasoning influence teaching and assessment. Acad Med. 2018 Sep;93(9):1415. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000002303

Young ME. Crystallizations of constructs. Perspect Med Educ. 2018 Jun 1;7(1):21–3. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40037-018-0422-0

Sherbino J, Dore KL, Wood TJ, et al. The relationship between response time and diagnostic accuracy. Acad Med. 2012 Jun;87(6):785–91. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0b013e318253acbd

Norman G, Young M, Brooks L. Non-analytical models of clinical reasoning: the role of experience. Med Educ. 2007;41(12):1140–5. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2007.02914.x

Graber ML, Wachter RM, Cassel CK. Bringing diagnosis into the quality and safety equations. JAMA. 2012 Sep 26;308(12):1211–2. https://doi.org/10.1001/2012.jama.11913

Platts-Mills TF, Nagurney JM, Melnick ER. Tolerance of uncertainty and the practice of emergency medicine. Ann Emerg Med. 2020 Jun 1;75(6):715–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2019.10.015

Peters A, Vanstone M, Monteiro S, Norman G, Sherbino J, Sibbald M. examining the influence of context and professional culture on clinical reasoning through rhetorical-narrative analysis. Qual Health Res. 2017 May 1;27(6):866–76. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732316650418

Cook DA, Sherbino J, Durning SJ. Management reasoning: beyond the diagnosis. JAMA. 2018 Jun 12;319(22):2267–8. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.4385

Connor DM, Durning SJ, Rencic JJ. Clinical reasoning as a core competency. Acad Med. 2020 Aug;95(8):1166–71. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000003027

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Published

2022-12-21 — Updated on 2023-03-21

How to Cite

1.
Young M, Szulewski A, Anderson R, Gomez-Garibello C, Thoma B, Monteiro S. Clinical Reasoning in CanMEDS 2025. Can. Med. Ed. J [Internet]. 2023 Mar. 21 [cited 2024 Jun. 21];14(1):58-62. Available from: https://journalhosting.ucalgary.ca/index.php/cmej/article/view/75843

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Emerging Concepts

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