Complex adaptive systems in CanMEDS 2025




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Author Biographies

John Van Aerde, University of Alberta


University of Alberta

Canadian Society of Physician Leaders

Royal Roads University

Marcio M Gomes , University of Ottawa



University of Ottawa

Meredith Giuliani , University of Toronto


University of Toronto

Susan Lieff, University of Toronto

MD, Med, MMan

University of Toronto


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2022-10-17 — Updated on 2023-03-21

How to Cite

Van Aerde J, Gomes MM, Giuliani M, Thoma B, Lieff S. Complex adaptive systems in CanMEDS 2025. Can. Med. Ed. J [Internet]. 2023 Mar. 21 [cited 2024 Jul. 24];14(1):50-3. Available from:



Emerging Concepts