How to Establish and Develop Communities of Practice to Better Collaborate

Yamina Bouchamma, Daniel April, Marc Basque

Abstract


Although education research has shown collaboration to be of the utmost importance, schools continue to lack the necessary means to help them incorporate professional learning communities (PLCs) to facilitate and sustain their development and growth. We analysed the process by which PLCs were gsuccessfully implemented, under the guidance of a research-action-training initiative (R-A-T), as well as the conditions for effective collaboration between the different instances involved (school districts, university, and principals). The study was based on a conceptual framework consisting of three key concepts: (1) the PLC and two of its sub-themes, namely, participation and reification (Wenger, 1998); (2) the capital involved (economic, human, and social) (OECD, 2001; Bourdieu, 1979a; 1979b; Bourdieu et Passeron, 1970); and (3) shared leadership (Wenger, 1998). The data was from multiple sources (individual interviews, questionnaires, focus groups, personal logs). Results show that economic capital made it possible to access the human and social capitals. Economic capital in fact enabled the establishment of three PLCs which generated social capital, supported by a team of university facilitators, and ultimately human capital (material pertaining to supervision: reification).


Keywords


professional learning communities (PLCs); professional learning communities; collaboration; professional development; school principals

Full Text:

PDF

References


Anadón, M. (2006). La recherche dite “qualitative: de la dynamique de son évolution aux acquis indéniables et aux questionnements présents. Recherches qualitatives, 26(1), 5-31. Retrieved from http://www.recherche-qualitative.qc.ca/documents/files/revue/edition_reguliere/numero26(1)/manadon_ch.pdf

Bickmore, D. (2010). Teaming, not training. Principal Leadership, 10(8), 44-47. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ894682

Blumer, H. (1969). Fashion: From class differentiation to collective selection. The Sociological Quarterly, 10(3), 275-291.

Borzillo, S. (2007). Communities of practice to actively manage best practices. Wiesbaden: Deutscher Universitäts-Verlag.

Bouchamma, Y., Giguère, M., & April, D. (2017). Référentiel de compétences d’un superviseur pédagogique: S’autoformer et s’autoévaluer pour superviser individuellement et collectivement. Québec, QC: Presses de l’Université Laval.

Bouchamma, Y., Giguère, M., & April, D. (2016). La supervision pédagogique. Guide pratique à l'intention des directions des établissements scolaires. Québec, QC: Presses de l’Université Laval.

Bourdieu, P. (1979a). La distinction critique sociale du jugement. Paris: Les Éditions de Minuit.

Bourdieu, P. (1979b). Les trois états du capital culturel. Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales, 30(1), 3-6.

Bourdieu, P. (1980). Le sens pratique. Paris: Les Éditions de Minuit.

Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J.-C. (1970). La reproduction: Éléments pour une théorie du système d’enseignement. Paris: Les Éditions de Minuit.

Bourhis, A., & Tremblay, D.G. (2004). Les facteurs organisationnels de succès des communautés de pratique virtuelles. Québec, QC: Cefrio. Retrieved from http://www.cefrio.qc.ca/media/uploader/Facteurs_organisationnels.pdf

Brassard, A., Cloutier, M., De Saedeleer, S., Corriveau, L., Fortin, R., Gélinas, A., & Savoie-Zajc, L. (2004). Rapport à l’activité éducative et identité professionnelle chez les directeurs d’établissement des ordres d’enseignement préscolaire et primaire. Revue des sciences de l’éducation, 30(3), 487-508. doi:10.7202/012079ar

Cappelletti, L. (2010). Vers un modèle socio-économique de mesure du capital humain? Revue française de gestion, (8), 139-152.

Corradi, G., Gherardi, S., & Verzelloni, L. (2010). Through the practice lens: Where is the bandwagon of practice-based studies heading? Management Learning, 41(3), 265-283.

Dembélé, M., Goulet, S., Lapointe, P., & Deniger, M.A. (2013). Perspective historique de la construction du modèle québécois de gestion scolaire axée sur les résultats. L’école à l’épreuve de la performance: Les politiques de régulation par les résultats: Trajectoires nationales, usages locaux. Brussels, Belgium: DeBoeck.

Dionne, L., Lemyre, F., & Savoie-Zajc, L. (2010). Vers une définition englobante de la communauté d’apprentissage (CA) comme dispositif de développement professionnel. Revue des Sciences de l'Éducation, 36(1), 25-43.

Emirbayer, M., & Johnson, V. (2008). Bourdieu and organizational analysis. Theory and society, 37(1), 1-44.

Fullan, M.G. (2009). Motion leadership: The skinny on becoming change savvy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Government of Québec. (2018a). Loi sur l’administration publique [Public Administration Act]. Retrieved from http://legisquebec.gouv.qc.ca/fr/ShowDoc/cs/A-6.01

Government of Québec. (2018b). Loi sur l’instruction publique [Public Education Act]. Retrieved from http://www.legisquebec.gouv.qc.ca/fr/ShowDoc/cs/I-13.3

Hargreaves, A., & Fink, D. (2006). The ripple effect. Educational leadership, 63(8), 16-20. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/summer06/vol63/num10/The-Ripple-Effect.aspx

Huffman, J.B., & Hipp, K.K. (2003). Professional learning community organizer. In J.B. Huffman & K.K. Hipp (Eds.), Reculturing schools as professional learning communities. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Education.

Huxham, C., & Vangen, S. (2005). Managing to collaborate. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Isabelle, C., Genier, É., Davidson, A., & Lamothe, R. (2013). CAP: Un leadership partagé entre le conseil scolaire, la direction et les enseignants. Éducation et Francophonie, 41(2), 155-177.

Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. UK: Cambridge University Press.

Marshall, K. (2013). Rethinking teacher supervision and evaluation: How to work smart, build collaboration, and close the achievement gap (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: John Wiley and Sons.

Marshall, C., & Rossman, G.B. (2016). Designing qualitative research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Mead, G.H. (1934). Mind, self and society. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Merriam, S.B. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Miles, M.B., & Huberman, M. (2003). Analyse des données qualitatives (2nd ed.). Brussels: De Boeck University.

Ministère de l’Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport. (2008). La formation à la gestion d’un établissement d’enseignement: Les orientations et les compétences professionnelles. Retrieved from http://www.education.gouv.qc.ca/fileadmin/site_web/documents/reseau/formation_titularisation/07-00881.pdf

Ministère de l’Éducation du Québec. (2001). La formation à l’enseignement: Les orientations. Les compétences professionnelles. Retrieved from http://www.education.gouv.qc.ca/fileadmin/site_web/documents/reseau/formation_titularisation/formation_enseignement_orientations_EN.pdf

OECD. (2001). The well-being of nations. The role of human and social capital. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/site/worldforum/33703702.pdf

Paillé, P. (1994). Pour une méthodologie de la complexité en éducation: Le cas d’une recherche-action-formation. Canadian Journal of Education/Revue Canadienne de L’éducation, 215230. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1495128?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Printy, S.M. (2004). The professional impact of communities of practice. University Council for Educational Administration Review, 46(1). Retrieved from http://www.ucea.org/resource/ucea-review/

Pyrko, I., Dörfler, V., & Eden, C. (2017). Thinking together: What makes communities of practice work? Human relations, 70(4), 389-409.

Richmond, G., Dershimer, R.C., Ferreira, M., Maylone, N., Kubitskey, B., & Meriweather, A. (2017). Developing and sustaining an educative mentoring model of STEM teacher professional development through collaborative partnership. Mentoring and Tutoring. 23(1). 5-26. doi:10.1080/13611267.2017.1308097

Sackney, L. (2007). History of the school effectiveness and improvement movement in Canada over the past 25 years. In T. Townsend (Ed.), International handbook of school effectiveness and improvement (pp. 167-182). Berlin: Springer.

Sackney, L., Mitchell, C., & Walker, K. (2005, April). Building capacity for learning communities: A case study of fifteen successful schools. Paper presented at the annual conference of the American Educational Research Association, Montréal, Québec.

Senge, P.M. (1990). The art and practice of the learning organization. The new paradigm in business: Emerging strategies for leadership and organizational change. New York, NY: Currency Doubleday.

Tapscott, D., & Williams, A.D. (2006). Wikinomics: How mass collaboration changes everything. New York, NY: Penguin Books.

Teddlie, C., & Tashakkori, A. (2009). Foundations of mixed methods research: Integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches in the social and behavioral sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Van Sickle, M., Perry, L., & Capelloni, A. (2017). University−Urban high school partnership: Math and science professional learning communities. School Science and Mathematics, 117(3-4), 137-145.

Vermersch, P. (2012). Explicitation et phénoménologie: Vers une psychophénoménologie. Paris, France: Presses universitaires de France.

Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning and identity. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Wenger, E.C., McDermott, R., & Snyder, W.M. (2002). Cultivating communities of practice: A guide to managing knowledge. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press.

Wenger, E.C., & Snyder, W.M. (2000). Communities of practice: The organizational frontier. Harvard Business Review, 78(1), 139-146. Retrieved from http://www.rareplanet.org/sites/rareplanet.org/files/Communities_of_Practice__The_Organizational_Frontier%5B1%5


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Yamina Bouchamma, Daniel April, Marc Basque

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.