Emotions Experienced by Instructors Delivering Written Feedback and Dialogic Feed-Forward

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.20343/teachlearninqu.11.6

Keywords:

assessment feedback, dialogic feed-forward, emotions, feedback literacy, emotional labour

Abstract

Understanding the emotions experienced by higher education instructors related to assessment feedback, how instructors understand student emotions, and how instructors might manage these emotions positively, can help to secure the educational benefits of feedback. In this research, we aimed to explore the emotional responses that instructors experienced through the giving and receiving of assessment feedback. We undertook qualitative data collection, carrying out individual semi-structured interviews with instructors from three universities who had administered a dialogic feed-forward intervention on one of their teaching units. The full interview transcripts were analysed inductively using thematic analysis. Five main themes emerged from the interview data: 1. Summative written feedback aroused largely negative emotions in instructors because they felt distanced from their students; 2. Instructors experienced a broad range of emotions related to dialogic feed-forward encounters, emerging from their proximity to students; 3. Dialogic feed-forward, as an affective encounter, was emotionally challenging for instructors; 4. Dialogic feed-forward built strong learning relationships between students and instructors, strengthening students’ sense of belonging; 5. Dialogic feed-forward was transformational for instructors as educators. We consider the implications of our findings for instructors and wider assessment and feedback practices, including emotional labour, promotional reward, and instructor professional development.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Author Biographies

Jennifer Hill, University of Gloucestershire

Jennifer Hill, PhD, is professor of higher education pedagogies and head of learning and teaching innovation at the University of Gloucestershire (GBR). 

Kathy Berlin, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indiana

Kathryn Berlin, PhD, is an associate professor and program director for health sciences at Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indiana (USA). 

Julia Choate, Monash University

Julia Choate, PhD, is an associate professor and director of physiology education at Monash University, Melbourne (AUS). 

Lisa Cravens-Brown, The Ohio State University

Lisa Cravens-Brown is associate vice chair for instruction in the department of psychology at The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (USA).

Lisa McKendrick-Calder, MacEwan University

Lisa Mckendrick-Calder, MN, is an assistant professor in the department of nursing sciences at MacEwan University in Edmonton, Alberta (CAN). 

Susan Smith, Leeds Beckett, University

Susan Smith, PhD, is a professor in teaching and learning and associate director of the Centre for Learning and Teaching at Leeds Beckett, University, Leeds (GBR). 

 

References

Baughan, Patrick, ed. 2021. Assessment and Feedback in a Post-Pandemic Era: A Time for Learning and Inclusion. York: Advance HE.

Bloxham, Sue, and Pete Boyd. 2012. “Accountability in Grading Student Work: Securing Academic Standards in a Twenty-First Century Quality Assurance Context.” British Educational Research Journal 38: 615–34. https://doi.org/10.1080/01411926.2011.569007.

Braun, Virginia, and Victoria Clarke. 2013. Successful Qualitative Research: A Practical Guide for Beginners. London: SAGE Publications.

Carless, David. 2006. “Differing Perceptions in the Feedback Process.” Studies in Higher Education 31 (2): 219–33. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075070600572132.

Carless, David, and David Boud. 2018. “The Development of Student Feedback Literacy: Enabling Uptake of Feedback.” Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 43 (8): 1315–25. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2018.1463354.

Carless, David, and Naomi Winstone. 2020. “Teacher Feedback Literacy and its Interplay with Student Feedback Literacy.” Teaching in Higher Education. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2020.1782372.

Carless, David, Diane Salter, Min Yang, and Joy Lam. 2011. “Developing Sustainable Feedback Practices.” Studies in Higher Education 36 (4): 395–407. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075071003642449.

Chalmers, Charlotte, Elaine Mowat, and Maggie Chapman. 2018. “Marking and Providing Feedback Face-to-Face: Staff and Student Perspectives.” Active Learning in Higher Education 19 (1): 35–45. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469787417721363.

Constanti, Panikkos, and Paul Gibbs. 2004. “Higher Education Teachers and Emotional Labour.” International Journal of Educational Management 18, no. 4 (June): 243–49. https://doi.org/10.1108/09513540410538822.

Crimmins, Gail, Gregory Nash, Florin Oprescu, Marama Liebergreen, Janet Turley, Richard Bond, and Jeanne Dayton. 2016. “A Written, Reflective and Dialogic Strategy for Assessment Feedback that can Enhance Student/Teacher Relationships.” Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 41 (1): 141–53. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2014.986644.

DeLuca, Christopher, Danielle LaPointe-McEwan, and Ulemu Luhanga. 2016. “Teacher Assessment Literacy: A Review of International Standards and Measures.” Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability 28: 251–72. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11092-015-9233-6.

Eysenck, Hans J. 1976. “Introduction.” Case Studies in Behaviour Therapy, edited by Hans. J. Eysenck, 1–15. London: Routledge.

Felten, Peter. 2017. “Emotion and Partnerships.” International Journal for Students as Partners 1: 1–5.

Freire, Paulo. 1970. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum.

Gardner, Howard. 1983. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books.

Gravett, Karen, and Naomi E. Winstone. 2022. “Making Connections: Authenticity and Alienation within Students’ Relationships in Higher Education.” Higher Education Research and Development 41 (2): 360–74. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2020.1842335.

Gravett, Karen, Carol A. Taylor, and Nikki Fairchild. 2021. “Pedagogies of Mattering: Re-Conceptualising Relational Pedagogies in Higher Education.” Teaching in Higher Education. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2021.1989580.

Hartney, Elizabeth. 2007. “Strategies for the Management of Lecturer Stress in Feedback Tutorials.” Active Learning in Higher Education 8 (1): 79–96. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469787407074119.

Hattie, John, and Helen Timperley. 2007. “The Power of Feedback.” Review of Educational Research 77 (1): 81–112. https://doi.org/10.3102/003465430298487.

Hill, Jennifer, and Harry West. 2020. “Improving the Student Learning Experience through Dialogic Feed-Forward Assessment.” Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 45 (1): 82–97. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2019.1608908.

Hill, Jennifer, and Harry West. 2022. “Dialogic Feed-Forward in Assessment: Pivotal to Learning but not Unproblematic.” Teaching & Learning Inquiry 10 (June): https://doi.org/10.20343/teachlearninqu.10.20.

Hill, Jennifer, Ruth L. Healey, Harry West, and Chantal Déry. 2021a. “Pedagogic Partnership in Higher Education: Encountering Emotion in Learning and Enhancing Student Wellbeing.” Journal of Geography in Higher Education 45 (2): 167–85. https://doi.org/10.1080/03098265.2019.1661366.

Hill, Jennifer, Kathy Berlin, Julia Choate, Lisa Cravens-Brown, Lisa McKendrick Calder, and Susan Smith. 2021b. “Exploring the Emotional Responses of Undergraduate Students to Assessment Feedback: Implications for Instructors.” Teaching & Learning Inquiry 9 (1), 294–316. https://doi.org/10.20343/teachlearninqu.9.1.20.

Hill, Jennifer, Kathy Berlin, Julia Choate, Lisa Cravens-Brown, Lisa McKendrick Calder, and Susan Smith. 2021c. “Can Relational Feed-Forward Enhance Students’ Cognitive and Affective Responses to Assessment?” Teaching & Learning Inquiry 9 (2): https://dx.doi.org/10.20343/teachlearninqu.9.2.18.

Hochschild, Arlie Russell. 1983. The Managed Heart. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Keltner, Dacher, and Jennifer S. Lerner. 2010. “Emotion.” Handbook of Social Psychology (5th edition), edited by Susan T. Fiske, Daniel T. Gilbert, and Gardner Lindzey, 312–47. San Francisco, CA: Wiley.

Koster, Shirley. 2011. “The Self‐Managed Heart: Teaching Gender and Doing Emotional Labour in a Higher Education Institution.” Pedagogy, Culture & Society 19 (1): 61–77. https://doi.org/10.1080/14681366.2011.548988.

Mendzheritskaya, Julia, and Miriam Hansen. 2019. “Are Lecturers who show Emotions Perceived as Understanding? How Culture and Teacher’s Display of Emotion are Related to Students’ Judgments about a Teacher’s Personality.” Studies in Higher Education 44 (10): 1793–1802. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2019.1665332.

Miles, Matthew B., and A. Michael Huberman. 1994. An Expanded Sourcebook Qualitative Data Analysis. 2nd Ed. London: SAGE Publications.

Morris, J. Andrew, and Daniel C. Feldman. 1996. “The Dimensions, Antecedents, and Consequences of Emotional Labour.” The Academy of Management Review 21 no. 4 (Oct): 986–1010. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1996.9704071861.

Myyry, Liisa, Terhi Karaharju-Suvanto, Marjo Vesalainen, Anna-Maija Virtala, Marja Raekallio, Outi Salminen, Katariina Vuorensola, and Anne Nevgi. 2020. “Experienced Academics’ Emotions related to Assessment.” Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 45 (1): 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2019.1601158.

Nicol, David. 2010. “From Monologue to Dialogue: Improving Written Feedback Processes in Mass Higher Education.” Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 35 (5): 501–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602931003786559.

Paris, Brit. M. 2022. “Instructors’ Perspectives of Challenges and Barriers to Providing Effective Feedback.” Teaching & Learning Inquiry 10 (January). https://doi.org/10.20343/teachlearninqu.10.3.

Pekrun, Reinhard. 2019. “Inquiry on Emotions in Higher Education: Progress and Open Problems.” Studies in Higher Education 44 (10): 1806–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2019.1665335.

Pekrun, Reinhard, and Lisa Linnenbrink-Garcia, eds. 2014. International Handbook of Emotions in Education. New York, NY: Routledge.

Pekrun, Reinhard, Thomas Goetz, Anne C. Frenzel, Petra Barchfeld, and Raymond P. Perry. 2011. “Measuring Emotions in Students’ Learning and Performance: The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ).” Contemporary Educational Psychology 36 (1): 36–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2010.10.002.

Pitt, Edd, and Lin Norton. 2017. “‘Now that’s the Feedback I Want!’ Students’ Reactions to Feedback on Graded Work and What They Do With It.” Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 42 (4): 499–516. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2016.1142500.

Reimann, Nicola, Ian Sadler, and Kay Sambell. 2019. “What’s in a Word? Practices Associated with ‘Feedforward’ in Higher Education.” Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 44 (8): 1279–90. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2019.1600655.

Rowe, Anna D., Julie Fitness, and Leigh Norma Wood. 2014. “The Role and Functionality of Emotions in Feedback at University: A Qualitative Study.” The Australian Educational Researcher 41: 283–309. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13384-013-0135-7.

Ryan, Tracii, and Michael Henderson. 2018. “Feeling Feedback: Students’ Emotional Responses to Educator Feedback.” Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 43 (6): 880–92. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2017.1416456.

Smith, Camille D., and Paul E. King. 2004. “Student Feedback Sensitivity and the Efficacy of Feedback Interventions in Public Speaking Performance Improvement.” Communication Education 53 (3): 203–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/0363452042000265152.

Spaeth, Ellen. 2018. “On Feedback and Emotional Labour.” Journal of Perspectives in Applied Academic Practice 6 (3): 83–86. https://jpaap.ac.uk/JPAAP/article/view/359/509.

Stough, Laura M., and Edmund T. Emmer. 1998. “Teachers’ Emotions and Test Feedback.” International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 11 (2): 341–61. https://doi.org/10.1080/095183998236809.

Tight, Malcolm. 2019. “The Neoliberal Turn in Higher Education.” Higher Education Quarterly 73: 273–84. https://doi.org/10.1111/hequ.12197.

Tracy, Sarah J. 2010. “Qualitative Quality: Eight “Big-Tent” Criteria for Excellent Qualitative Research.” Qualitative Inquiry 16 (10): 837–51. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1077800410383121.

Tuck, Jackie. 2012. “Feedback-Giving as Social Practice: Teachers’ Perspectives on Feedback as Institutional Requirement, Work and Dialogue.” Teaching in Higher Education 17 (2): 209–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2011.611870.

Tuxford, Linda M., and Graham L. Bradley. 2015. “Emotional Job Demands and Emotional Exhaustion in Teachers.” Educational Psychology 35 (8): 1006–24. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2014.912260.

Winstone, Naomi E., Robert A. Nash, James Rowntree, and Michael Parker. 2017. “‘It’d Be Useful, but I Wouldn’t Use It’: Barriers to University Students’ Feedback Seeking and Recipience.” Studies in Higher Education 42 (11): 2026–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2015.1130032.

Young, Pat. 2000. “‘I Might as Well Give Up’: Self Esteem and Mature Students’ Feelings about Feedback on Assignments.” Journal of Further and Higher Education 24 (3): 409–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/030987700750022325.

Zhao, Xin, Andrew Cox, Ally Lu, and Anas Alsuhaibani. 2022. “A Comparison of Student and Staff Perceptions and Feelings about Assessment and Feedback using Cartoon Annotation.” Journal of Further and Higher Education 46 (5): 586–604. https://doi.org/10.1080/0309877X.2021.1986620.

Our ISSOTL 2019 International Collaborative Writing Group members. Pictured L-R are Lisa McKendrick-Calder, Julia Choate, Lisa Cravens-Brown, Kathy Berlin, Jennifer Hill, and Susan Smith.

Downloads

Published

2023-01-16

How to Cite

Hill, Jennifer, Kathy Berlin, Julia Choate, Lisa Cravens-Brown, Lisa McKendrick-Calder, and Susan Smith. 2023. “Emotions Experienced by Instructors Delivering Written Feedback and Dialogic Feed-Forward”. Teaching and Learning Inquiry 11 (January). https://doi.org/10.20343/teachlearninqu.11.6.