Developing and Assessing Respect for Human Dignity in College Students
Keywords:scientist-educator model, respect for human dignity, assessment, learning outcomes
Academic institutions are now expected to engage in developing and assessing learning outcomes; however, responsibility outcomes, such as respect for human dignity (RFHD), can be particularly challenging. As part of our Biopsychology course and Sensation and Perception course over the past decade, we applied the scientist-educator model of learning and drew from the literature on prejudice reduction to develop our RFHD interventions, which involved face-to-face interactions with others who had sensory deficits or brain/spinal cord injuries. We iteratively created two pre-post measures to assess development of different aspects of RFHD: a Behavioral Tendencies Questionnaire and a 4-Factor RFHD Model Questionnaire. Recently, we modified the intervention and the assessments for adoption in our Class, Race, and Ethnicity in Society course. This paper reports findings from these three courses and a control course in engineering (n = 153). Findings support our two sets of hypotheses, regarding 1) the efficacy of the assessments to capture different likelihoods for interacting with others targeted by the interventions and changes over time in these factors, and 2) positive effects of the face-to-face intervention activities. This study demonstrates RFHD can be developed and assessed in a college course and provides new assessments for RFHD that are easily modified for a variety of types of others (e.g., individuals who are homeless versus blind or of a particular race).
Click here to read the corresponding ISSOTL blog post.
Allport, Gordon W. 1954. The Nature of Prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Bennett, Christine. 2001. “Genres of Research in Multicultural Education.” Review of Educational Research 71: 171–217. https://doi:10.3102/00346543071002171.
Bernstein, Daniel J., William Addison, Cindy Altman, Debra Hollister, Meera Komarraju, Loreto Prieto, Courtney Rocheleau, and Cecilia Shore. 2010. “Toward a Scientist-Educator Model of Teaching Psychology.” In Undergraduate Education in Psychology: A Blueprint for the Future, edited by Diane F. Halpern, 29–45. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/12063-002.
Bunnell, Sarah, and Kyle Smith. 2019. “Inclusive Empathy as a Threshold Concept: A Students-as-Partners Initiative to Support Learners with Diverse Ideologies.” Presented at International Society for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, Atlanta, GA.
Butler Samuels, Michelle, and Lauren Scharff. 2021. “Applying the Scientist-Educator Model to Develop and Assess Respect for Human Dignity.” Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1037/stl0000260.
Conway, Jim, Elise Louise Amel, and Daniel P. Gerwien. 2009. “Teaching and Learning in the Social Context: A Meta-analysis of Service Learning’s Effects on Academic, Personal, Social, and Citizenship Outcomes.” Teaching of Psychology 36 (4): 233–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00986280903172969.
Glasman, Laura R., and Dolores Albarracin. 2006. “Forming Attitudes that Predict Future Behavior: A Meta-Analysis of the Attitude-Behavior Relation.” Psychological Bulletin 132: 778–822. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.132.5.778.
González, Roberto, and Rupert Brown. 2003. “Generalization of Positive Attitude as a Function of Subgroup and Superordinate Group Identifications in Intergroup Contact.” European Journal of Social Psychology 33: 195–214. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.140.
Graham, Haydon. 2006. “Respect for persons and for Cultures as a Basis for National and Global Citizenship.” Journal of Moral Education 35 (4): 457–71. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057240601012253.
Jaswal, Sheila. 2019. “Being Human in STEM: Moving from Student Protest to Institutional Partnership.” AACU Diversity & Democracy 22 (1). https://dgmg81phhvh63.cloudfront.net/content/user-photos/Publications/Archives/Diversity-Democracy/DD_22-1_WI19.pdf.
Kaplan, Matthew, Naomi Silver, Danielle Lavaque-Manty, and Deborah Meizlish, D. (Eds.) 2013. Using Reflection and Metacognition to Improve Student Learning. VA: Stylus Publishing, LLC.
Krahe, Barbara, and Colette Altwasser. 2006. “Changing Negative Attitudes Towards Persons with Physical Disabilities: An Experimental Intervention.” Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology 16: 59–69. https://doi.org/10.1002/casp.849.
Lalljee, Mansur, Simon M. Laham, and Tania Tam. 2007. “Unconditional Respect for Persons: A Social Psychological Analysis.” Gruppendynamik 38 (4): 451–64. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11612-007-0037-0.
Lalljee, Mansur, Tania Tam, Miles Hewstone, Simon Laham, and Jessica Lee. 2009. “Unconditional Respect for Persons and the Prediction of Intergroup Action Tendencies.” European Journal of Social Psychology 39: 666–83. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.564.
Pettigrew, Thomas F., and Linda R. Tropp. 2006. “A Meta-Analytic Test of Intergroup Contact Theory.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 90 (5): 751–83. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1991.
Pettigrew, Thomas F., and Linda R. Tropp. 2008. “How Does Intergroup Contact Reduce Prejudice?” European Journal of Social Psychology 38 (6): 922–34. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.504.
Pusateri, Thomas, Jane Halonen, Bill Hill, and Maureen McCarthy. 2009. The Assessment Cyberguide for Learning Goals And Outcomes, Second Edition. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. http://www.apa.org/ed/governance/bea/assessment-cyberguide-v2.pdf.
Richardson, John. 2011. “Eta Squared and Partial Eta Squared as Measures of Effect Size in Educational Research.” Educational Research Review 6 (2):135–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2010.12.001.
Swart, Hermann, Miles Hewstone, Oliver Christ, and Alberto Voci. 2011. “Affective Mediators of Intergroup Contact: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study in South Africa.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 101 (6): 1221–38. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024450.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Lauren F. V. Scharff, Michelle A. Butler Samuels
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.