Scaffolding Understanding of Scholarly Educational Research Through Teacher/Student Conferencing and Differentiated Instruction


  • Ghazi M. Ghaith American University of Beirut
  • Ghada M. Awada Lebanese American University–Graduate Research Studies



educational research, differentiated instruction, teacher/student conferencing


This article reports the results of a qualitative study of the effectiveness of a critical reading instructional intervention based on differentiated instruction (DI) and teacher/student conferencing (TSC) in improving the participants’ understanding and evaluation of published educational research. A cohort of eleven (n = 11) novice graduate students took part in a 15-week course during which they critiqued several self-selected journal articles and reflected on their experience. Results of the thematic analysis of the participants’ reflection logs revealed that their’ initial feelings of apprehension and anxiety transformed into growth in their self-efficacy as consumers and designers of educational research. Likewise, the participants benefitted from scaffolding their challenges and the provision of feedback in becoming more proficient readers and in developing supportive relationships. The study implications, limitations, and suggestions for further research are discussed.


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Author Biographies

Ghazi M. Ghaith, American University of Beirut

Ghazi M. Ghaith is professor of language education. Department of Education, American University of Beirut, Lebanon.

Ghada M. Awada, Lebanese American University–Graduate Research Studies

Ghada M. Awada is post-doctoral fellow and researcher. Graduate Research Studies, Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon.


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teacher and student conferencing




How to Cite

Ghaith, Ghazi, and Ghada Awada. 2022. “Scaffolding Understanding of Scholarly Educational Research Through Teacher/Student Conferencing and Differentiated Instruction”. Teaching and Learning Inquiry 10 (January).