A Developmental Framework for Mentorship in SoTL Illustrated by Three Examples of Unseen Opportunities for Mentoring


  • Jennifer C Friberg Illinois State University
  • Mandy Frake-Mistak York University
  • Ruth Healey University of Chester
  • Shannon Sipes Indiana University
  • Julie Mooney University of Alberta
  • Stephanie Sanchez University of New Mexico
  • Karena Waller University of Melbourne




mentoring in SoTL, mentoring framework, unseen mentoring, SoTL, Faculty mentoring


Mentoring relationships that form between scholars of teaching and learning occur formally and informally, across varied pathways and programs. In order to better understand such relationships, this paper proposes an adapted version of a three-stage model of mentoring, using three examples of unseen opportunities for mentoring in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) to illustrate how this framework might be operationalized. We discuss how the adapted framework might be useful to SoTL scholars in the future to examine mentorship and how unseen opportunities for mentoring might shape how we consider this subset of mentorship going forward.


Metrics Loading ...

Author Biographies

Jennifer C Friberg, Illinois State University

Jennifer Friberg is the Interim Director for the Center for Teaching, Learning, & Technology, the Cross Endowed Chair in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, and a Professor of Communication Sciences and Disorders at Illinois State University (USA). She is the founding Associate Editor for Teaching and Learning in Communication Sciences & Disorders and is a member of ISSOTL’s Advocacy Committee. 

Mandy Frake-Mistak, York University

Mandy Frake-Mistak, PhD, is an educational developer at the Teaching Commons, York University, Ontario (CAN). She is an active SoTL researcher and Fellow of the International Society for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. She is secretary of the Educational Developers Caucus, and the Chair of the Accreditation Committee of the Educational Developer Caucus.

Ruth Healey, University of Chester

Ruth L. Healey is an Associate Professor in Pedagogy in Higher Education at the University of Chester, UK. She is a National Teaching Fellow and a Fellow of the International Society for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. 


Shannon Sipes, Indiana University

Shannon M. Sipes is Director of the Scholarship of Teaching & Learning Program and a Lead Instructional Consultant in the Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning at Indiana University (USA). She is a member of ISSOTL’s Advocacy Committee as well as the Convenings Committee. 

Julie Mooney, University of Alberta

Julie A. Mooney is a PhD candidate specializing in Educational Policy Studies at the University of Alberta (CAN), with a background in Educational Development. She is a 3M National Teaching Fellow and a Social Sciences & Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) Doctoral Fellow. 

Stephanie Sanchez, University of New Mexico

Stephanie M. Sanchez is the Associate Director of student learning at the Center for Teaching and Learning and lecturer in Chicana/o Studies at the University of New Mexico (USA). 

Karena Waller, University of Melbourne

Karena L. Waller is an Associate Professor (in Microbiology and Immunology, and Higher Education) and Deputy Program Director of the Bachelor of Biomedicine at The University of Melbourne (AUS). She is also an ISSOTL Regional Vice-President (Asia-Pacific) and member of the Recognition Committee.


Allen, Tammy D., Lillian T. Eby, and Elizabeth Lentz. 2006. “Mentorship Behaviors and Mentorship Quality Associated with Formal Mentoring Programs: Closing the Gap between Research and Practice.” Journal of Applied Psychology 91, no. 3: 567–78. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.3.567.

Beech, Bettina M., Jorge Calles-Escandon, Kristen G. Hairston, Sarah E. Langdon, Brenda A. Latham-Sadler, and Ronny A. Bell. 2013. “Mentoring Programs for Underrepresented Minority Faculty in Academic Medical Centers: A Systematic Review of the Literature.” Academic Medicine 88, no. 4: 541–49. https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0b013e31828589e3.

Blake-Beard, Stacey D., Audrey Murrell, and David Thomas. 2007. “Unfinished Business: The Impact of Race on Understanding Mentoring Relationships.” In The Handbook of Mentoring at Work: Theory, Research, and Practice, edited by Belle R. Ragins and Kathy E. Kram, 223–47.

Boyd, Tammy, Rosa Cintron, Mia Alexander-Snow. 2010. “The Experience of Being a Junior Minority Female Faculty Member.” Forum on Public Policy Online 2010, no. 2.

Brandau, Johannes, Peter Studencnik, and Silvia Kopp-Sixt. 2017. “Dimensions and Levels of Mentoring: Empirical Findings of the First German Inventory and Implications for Future Practice.” Global Education Review 4, no. 4: 5–19. https://ger.mercy.edu/index.php/ger/article/view/288.

Coles, Ann. 2011. “The Role of Mentoring in College Access and Success. Research to Practice Brief.” Institute for Higher Education Policy. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED520415.

Cook-Sather, Alison, Catherine Bovill, and Peter Felten. 2014. Engaging Students as Partners in Learning and Teaching: A Guide for Faculty. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Cox, Milton D. 2004. “Introduction to Faculty Learning Communities.” New Directions for Teaching and Learning 2004, no. 97: 5–23. https://doi.org/10.1002/tl.129.

Davidson, Martin N., and Lynn Foster-Johnson. 2001. “Mentoring in the Preparation of Graduate Researchers of Color.” Review of Educational Research 71, no. 4: 549–74. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543071004549.

Davies, Chantal, and Ruth L. Healey. 2019. “Hacking Through the Gordian Knot: Can Facilitating Operational Mentoring Untangle the Gender Research Productivity Puzzle in HE?” Studies in Higher Education 44, no. 1: 31–44. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2017.1333494.

Eby, Lillian T., and Angie Lockwood. 2005. “Protégés and Mentors’ Reactions to Participating in Formal Mentoring Programs: A Qualitative Investigation.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 67, no. 3: 441–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2004.08.002.

Ensher, Ellen A., and Susan E. Murphy. 1997. “Effects of Race, Gender, Perceived Similarity, and Contact on Mentor Relationships.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 50, no. 3: 460–81. https://doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1996.1547.

Felten, Peter. 2013. “Principles of Good Practice in SoTL.” Teaching and Learning Inquiry 1, no. 1: 121–25. https://doi.org/10.2979/teachlearninqu.1.1.121.

Fletcher, Sarah J. and Carol A. Mullen. 2012. The SAGE Handbook of Mentoring in Education. London, UK: SAGE.

Frake-Mistak, Mandy, Heidi L. Marsh, Geneviève Maheux-Pelletier, and Siobhan Williams. 2020. “Making SoTL Stick: Using a Community-Based Approach to Engage Faculty in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning.” In Evidence-Based Faculty Development Through the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, edited by Michelle L. Amos and Rachel C. Plews. IGI Global: Hershey, PA.

Giscombe, Katherine. 2007. “Advancing Women through the Glass Ceiling with Formal Mentoring.” In The Handbook of Mentoring at Work: Theory, Research, and Practice, edited by Belle R. Ragins and Kathy E. Kram, 549–71.

Handley, Karen, Andrew Sturdy, Robin Fincham, and Timothy Clark. 2006. “Within and Beyond Communities of Practice: Making Sense of Learning through Participation, Identity and Practice.” Journal of Management Studies 43, no. 3: 641–53. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2006.00605.x.

Hansman, Catherine A., ed. 2002. Critical Perspectives on Mentoring: Trends and Issues. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education, Center on Education and Training for Employment, College of Education, the Ohio State University.

Hansman, Catherine A. 2003. “Reluctant Mentors and Resistant Protégés: Welcome to the ‘Real’ World of Mentoring.” Adult Learning 14, no. 1: 14–16. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F104515950301400103.

Healey, Mick, Abbi Flint, and Kathy Harrington. 2014. Engagement Through Partnership: Students as Partners in Learning and Teaching in Higher Education. York, UK: Higher Education Academy.

Healey, Mick, Beth Marquis, and Susan Vajoczki. 2013. “Exploring SoTL Through International Collaborative Writing Groups.” Teaching and Learning Inquiry 1, no. 2: 3–8. https://doi.org/10.20343/teachlearninqu.1.2.3.

Hsieh, Bettina, and Huong Tran Nguyen Huong. 2020. “Coalitional Resistance: Challenging Racialized and Gendered Oppression in Teacher Education.” Journal of Teacher Education. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0022487120960371.

Hubball, Harry, Anthony Clarke, and Gary Poole. 2010. “Ten‐Year Reflections on Mentoring SoTL Research in a Research‐Intensive University.” International Journal for Academic Development 15, no. 2: 117–29. https://doi.org/10.1080/13601441003737758.

Huber, Mary T. 2009. “Teaching Travels: Reflections on the Social Life of Classroom Inquiry and Innovation.” International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning 3, no. 2: Article 2. https://doi.org/10.20429/ijsotl.2009.030202.

International Collaborative Writing Group. 2019. [Email Communication].

International Journal for Students as Partners 2019. “Vision.” International Journal for Students as Partners. https://mulpress.mcmaster.ca/ijsap/. [accessed 7th October 2019].

Jones, Heather A., Paul B. Perrin, Mary B. Heller, Selamawit Hailu, and Christina Barnett. 2018. “Black Psychology Graduate Students’ Lives Matter: Using Informal Mentoring to Create an Inclusive Climate Amidst National Race-Related Events.” Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 49, no. 1: 75–82. https://doi.org/10.1037/pro0000169.

Kochan, Frances K., ed. 2002. The Organizational and Human Dimensions of Successful Mentoring Programs and Relationships. IAP.

Kram, Kathy E. 1985. Mentoring at Work: Developmental Relationships in Organizational Life. University Press of America.

Lave, Jean, and Etienne Wenger. 1991. Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

MacQueen, Kathleen, Eleanor McLellan-Lemal, Kelly Bartholow, and Bobby Milstein. 2008. “Team-Based Codebook Development: Structure, Process, and Agreement. In Handbook for Team-Based Qualitative Research, edited by Greg Guest and Kathleen M. MacQueen, 119–36. AltaMira Press.

McKinsey, Elizabeth. 2016. “Faculty Mentoring Undergraduates: The Nature, Development, and Benefits of Mentoring Relationships.” Teaching & Learning Inquiry 4, no. 1: 25–39. https://doi.org/10.20343/teachlearninqu.4.1.5.

Palepu, Anita, Robert H. Friedman, Rosalind C. Barnett, Phyllis L. Carr, Arlene S. Ash, Laura Szalacha, and Mark A. Moskowitz. 1998. “Junior Faculty Members’ Mentoring Relationships and Their Professional Development in US Medical Schools.” Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 73, no. 3: 318–23. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-199803000-00021.

Potter, Michael. K., and Erika D. H. Kustra. 2011. “The Relationship between Scholarly Teaching and SoTL: Models, Distinctions and Clarifications.” International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning 5, no. 1. https://digitalcommons.georgiasouthern.edu/ij-sotl/vol5/iss1/23/

Ragins, Belle R., and John L. Cotton. 1991. “Easier Said than Done: Gender Differences in Perceived Barriers to Gaining a Mentor.” Academy of Management Journal 34, no. 4: 939–51. https://doi.org/10.5465/256398.

Ragins, Belle R., and John L. Cotton. 1999. “Mentor Functions and Outcomes: A Comparison of Men and Women in Formal and Informal Mentoring Relationships.” Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, no.4: 529–50. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.84.4.529.

Roxå, Torgny, and Katarina Mårtensson. 2009. “Significant Conversations and Significant Networks—Exploring the Backstage of the Teaching Arena.” Studies in Higher Education 34, no. 5: 547–59. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075070802597200.

Saldaña, Johnny. 2016. The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Simmons, Nicola, and Elizabeth Marquis. 2017. “Promoting and Celebrating International SoTL Collaborations: An Introduction to the Special Issue.” The Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning 8, no: 2. https://doi.org/10.5206/cjsotl-rcacea.2017.2.1.

Sorcinelli, Mary D., and Jung Yun. 2007. “From Mentor to Mentoring Networks: Mentoring in the New Academy.” Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning 39, no. 6: 58–61. https://doi.org/10.3200/CHNG.39.6.58-C4.

Vander Kloet, Marie, Mandy Frake-Mistak, Michelle K. McGinn, Marion Caldecott, Erin D. Aspenlieder, Jacqueline L. Beres, Sherry Fukuzawa, Alice Cassidy, and Apryl Gill. 2017. “Conditions for Contingent Instructors Engaged in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning.” The Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning 8, no. 2: Article 9. https://doi.org/10.5206/cjsotl-rcacea.2017.2.9.

Zambrana, Ruth E., Rashawn Ray, Michelle M. Espino, Corinne Castro, Beth D. Cohen, and Jennifer Eliason. 2015. “‘Don’t Leave Us Behind’: The Importance of Mentoring for Underrepresented Minority Faculty.” American Educational Research Journal 52, no. 1: 40–72. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831214563063.




How to Cite

Friberg, Jennifer C, Mandy Frake-Mistak, Ruth Healey, Shannon Sipes, Julie Mooney, Stephanie Sanchez, and Karena Waller. 2021. “A Developmental Framework for Mentorship in SoTL Illustrated by Three Examples of Unseen Opportunities for Mentoring”. Teaching and Learning Inquiry 9 (1):395-413. https://doi.org/10.20343/teachlearninqu.9.1.26.



ICWG Special Section