From the "Science of Disease" to the "Understanding of Those Who Suffer": The Cultivation of an Interpretive Understanding of "Behaviour Problems" in Children
In this interpretive essay, I attempt to unconceal the problematic history at play in Special Education in Alberta today, with a focus on â€œbehaviour studentsâ€ or their norm-referenced disability status. A brief, but central, anecdote is used to help reveal some of the everyday problems that arise in education because of the behavioural disability framing of students. I suggest that these problems are examples of Illichâ€™s appropriated notions of iatrogenesis and counterproductivity. As an applied emancipatory action, I call upon Gadamer and Ricoeur to help me interpretively turn the common, everyday understanding of pathology and self in the context of others as possibilities for understanding â€œbehaviour studentsâ€ anew.
behaviour, coding, dignity, disorder, iatrogenesis, self-esteem, special education
Alberta Teachers' Association Special Education, C. (2006). BOATS : behaviour observation assessment teaching strategies. Edmonton, Alta.: Special Education Council of the Alberta Teachers' Association.
Alberta Education. (2008). Supporting positive behaviour in Alberta schools. Edmonton: Alberta Education.
Author. (2011). ()
Barone, T. (2007). A Return to the Gold Standard? Questioning the Future of Narrative Construction as Educational Research. Qualitative Inquiry, 13(4), 454-470.
Batchelor, S. (1998). Buddhism without beliefs : a contemporary guide to awakening. New York: Riverhead Books.
Biesta, G., & Burbules, N. C. (2003). Pragmatism and educational research. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Britzman, D. P. (1998). Lost subjects, contested objects toward a psychoanalytic inquiry of learning. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Clayton, M. P. (1959). Juvenile offenders and the law. Exceptional Children, 38, 95 - 105.
Clifford, P. A. (1996). Here there be dragons: de-literalizing the margins of educational thought and practice: Educational Policy and Administrative Studies, University of Calgary.
Davey, N. (2006). Unquiet understanding : Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Descartes, R. (1637 : 1988). Meditations On First Philosophy (J. S. Cottingham, Robert. Murdoch, Dugald, Trans.) Descartes Selected Philosophical Writings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ferri, B. A. (2011). Undermining inclusion? A critical reading of response to intervention (RTI). International Journal of Inclusive Education International Journal of Inclusive Education, 1-18.
Feyerabend, P. (1975). Against method : outline of an anarchistic theory of knowledge. London; Atlantic Highlands: NLB ; Humanities Press.
Gadamer, H.-G. (1976). Philosophical hermeneutics. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Gadamer, H.-G. (1982). Reason in the age of science. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Gadamer, H.-G. (1996). The enigma of health : the art of healing in a scientific age. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Gadamer, H.-G. (2004). Truth and method. London: Continuum.
Gadamer, H.-G., & Palmer, R. E. (2007). The Gadamer reader : a bouquet of the later writings. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press.
Gottlieb, P. (2011). Aristotle on Non-contradiction. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2011 Edition), from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2011/entries/aristotle-noncontradiction
Graham, L. J., & Jahnukainen, M. (2011). Wherefore art thou, inclusion? Analysing the development of inclusive education in New South Wales, Alberta and Finland. J. Educ. Policy Journal of Education Policy, 26(2), 263-288.
Greenberg, G. (2010). Manufacturing depression : the secret history of a modern disease. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Hacking, I. (2002). Historical ontology. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Hatfield, G. (2011). Rene Descartes. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2011 Edition), from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2011/entries/descartes/
Jardine, D. W. (2012). â€œThe Descartes Lectureâ€. Journal of Applied Hermeneutics.
Jardine, D. W. (2012). Pedagogy left in peace : cultivating free spaces in teaching and learning. New York, NY: Continuum International Pub. Group.
Jardine, D. W., Clifford, P., & Friesen, S. (2008). Back to the basics of teaching and learning : "thinking the world together". New York: Routledge.
Jardine, D. W., Friesen, S., & Clifford, P. (2006). Curriculum in abundance. New Jersey, NY, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Jeary, J., Couture, J.-C., & Alberta Teachers, A. (2009). Success for all : the teaching profession's views on the future of special education in Alberta. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Teachers' Association.
Kant, I., & Paton, H. J. (1964). Groundwork of the metaphysic of morals. New York: Harper & Row.
Kearney, R. (2003). Strangers, Gods, and monsters : interpreting otherness. London; New York: Routledge.
Kuhn, T. S. (1970). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Laurence, J., & McCallum, D. (2009). Inside the child's head : histories of childhood behavioural disorders. Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Boston: Sense Publishers.
McNally, R. J. (2003). Remembering trauma. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Phelan, A. M. (1996). â€œStrange pilgrimsâ€ disillusionment and nostalgia in teacher education reform. Interchange, 27(3), 331-348. doi: 10.1007/bf01807411
Phillips, D. C., & Burbules, N. C. (2000). Postpositivism and educational research. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Pinar, W. (1995). Understanding curriculum : an introduction to the study of historical and contemporary curriculum discourses. New York: P. Lang.
Ricoeur, P. (2007). Reflections on the just. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Simms, K. (2003). Paul Ricoeur. London; New York: Routledge.
Slee, R. (1995). Changing theories and practices of discipline. London; Washington, D.C.: Falmer Press.
Slee, R. (2011). The irregular school exclusion, schooling, and inclusive education. New York, NY: Routledge.
Smith, D. G. (2006). Trying to teach in a season of great untruth : globalization, empire and the crises of pedagogy. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Tait, G. (2010). Philosophy, behaviour disorders, and the school. Rotterdam; Boston: Sense.
Weinsheimer, J. (1991). Gadamer's metaphorical hermeneutics. Gadamer and hermeneutics : science, culture, literature : Plato, Heidegger, Barthes, Ricoeur, Habermas, Derrida, 181-201.
Wente, M. (2012). Is anybody normal anymore? Retrieved May 5, 2012, from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/opinions/margaret-wente/is-anybody-normal-any-more/article2423352/
Winzer, M. A. (2009). From integration to inclusion : a history of special education in the 20th century. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.
Wittgenstein, L. (1968). Philosophical investigations. New York: Macmillan.
Young, A. (1995). The harmony of illusions : inventing post-traumatic stress disorder. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Zabel, R. H., Kaff, M. S., & Teagarden, J. M. (2011). An Oral History of First-Generation Leaders in Education of Children With Emotional/Behavioral Disorders, Part 2: Important Events, Developments, and People. J. Emot. Behav. Disord. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 19(3), 131-142.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).