Conceptualization and Operationalization of Accountability in Canadian Education: A Systematic Review

  • Yan (Lizzie) Yan Queen's University
Keywords: accountability, conceptualization, operationalization, Canadian education system


In this systematic review, I explore the conceptualization and operationalization of accountability within Canadian K-12 education systems. I suggest that while the frameworks of local jurisdictions remain in Economic-Bureaucratic Accountability (EBA) model, there is a shift from Economic-Bureaucratic Accountability model to Ethic-Professional Accountability (EPA) model in current conceptualization and operationalization of accountability in Canadian education systems. The mechanism of solely using standardized testing programs for accountability has shifted to a multidimensional accountability framework that includes a wide range of indicators and the use of program evaluations to engage and empower key stakeholders in K-12 system and to ensure student success. However, continuous empirical inquiry is needed on current accountability concepts and frameworks to gain more reflective thoughts on refinements and evolvement of accountability in Canadian education systems.

Author Biography

Yan (Lizzie) Yan, Queen's University
Yan (Lizzie) Yan is a PhD student in the Assessment and Evaluation Group, Faculty of Education, Queen’s University. Her passion in education is to effectively use assessment tools to facilitate students’ learning outcomes. Her primary research focus on teachers’ grading perceptions and practices in incorporating large-scale assessment results in standard-based education. This strong motivation and determination stem from her rich experiences in the field of teacher training and professional development. Involving in different research projects in graduate studies has developed her strong knowledge and skills in research methodologies, particularly in quantitative methods. 
Literature Review/Revue de la documentation