Conceptualization and Operationalization of Accountability in Canadian Education: A Systematic Review
In this systematic review, I explore the conceptualization and operationalization of accountability within Canadian K-12 education systems. I suggest that while the frameworks of local jurisdictions remain in Economic-Bureaucratic Accountability (EBA) model, there is a shift from Economic-Bureaucratic Accountability model to Ethic-Professional Accountability (EPA) model in current conceptualization and operationalization of accountability in Canadian education systems. The mechanism of solely using standardized testing programs for accountability has shifted to a multidimensional accountability framework that includes a wide range of indicators and the use of program evaluations to engage and empower key stakeholders in K-12 system and to ensure student success. However, continuous empirical inquiry is needed on current accountability concepts and frameworks to gain more reflective thoughts on refinements and evolvement of accountability in Canadian education systems.
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