The Significance of Culture Care in the Evaluation System of Indigenous Cultural Health Station Service in Taiwan


  • Hui-Chuan Chiu Providence University
  • Prof. Kuo, Chun-Yen Department of Social Work and Child Welfare, Providence University


Cultural Health Station, Evaluation system, Indigenous peoples in Taiwan, Long-term care plan


In 2015, the Taiwan government launched the Long-term Care Plan 2.0 that contains a chapter devoted to the Indigenous peoples. The Council of Indigenous Peoples promotes the development of a long-term care system that provides dignified care service for elders in the tribes and focuses on the subjectivity of the ethnic culture. For over a decade, among the long-term care services for the tribes, the Cultural Health Station (CHS) has served as the facility put forward by the government for the implementation of care centers with the important mission to develop a sustainable long-term care system for elders. This article examines the relevance of cultural care in the practice and in the evaluation system of cultural health stations. It summarizes and analyzes the relationship between cultural subjectivity and care services through the data of "excellent performance" in the evaluations of CHSs across the country. Based on this analysis, the study further explores how CHS, which operates under the evaluation system, reinforces the local characteristics in its cultural care services. Finally, the paper attempts to put forward views and suggestions on how the CHS can develop a more suitable tribal cultural care model.


The results show that among 31 CHSs with excellent performance in the evaluation in 2020, the functions of CHS have been upgraded from the general primary prevention and long-term care function to include diversified services. This paper finds that the indicators related to culture care in the evaluation system can promote the development of individual care models in CHS, including 1) professional care that emphasizes the cultivation of local manpower to improve the quality of service; 2) friendly environment and activity design that provide safe and appropriate care to the elderly; and 3) innovative services that respect local cultures by empowering elders  to contribute their wisdom and skills through participation in CHS activities. In order to ensure that the evaluation system supports the CHS to further develop a sustainable local cultural care service with more cultural subjectivity, it is recommended that the government encourage the tribes to strengthen their own cultural characteristics and provide flexibility for CHS operations so as to implement culture care that meets local needs and supports the uniqueness of the tribal health stations.


Chong, Hiu-Ha (2012). A Preliminary Exploration of Cultural Competence. Indigenous Social

Work: A Case Study of Hualien County. Social Policy & Social Work, 16, 133-182.

Council of Indigenous Peoples (2021). Long-term Care Promotion for Indigenous Peoples,

Cultural Health Station Implementation Plan, Ministry of Administration.

Council of Indigenous Peoples (2020). “Evaluation Report” of the Long-term Care Promotion

for Indigenous Peoples, Cultural Health Station Implementation Plan, Ministry of Administration.

Errico, Stefania (2007). The Draft UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: An

Overview. Human Rights Law Review, 7(4), 741-755.

Huang, C.K & Chen, Y.-Y. (2019). Practicing cultural care by integrating ethnic beliefs and

Christianity: An exploratory study of Atayal tribes along the Da An river facilities.

Mental Health Association in Taiwan (MHAT), 32(2), 183-208.

Hwang, Y.-S. (2020). The development trend of international Indigenous social welfare:

Implications for Taiwan. Community Development Journal Quarterly, 169, 19-36.

Isidiho, Alphonsus O. & Mohammad Shatar B. Sabran (2016), Evaluating the top-bottom and

bottom-up community development approaches: Mixed method approach as

alternative for rural un-educated communities in developing countries. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 7(4), 266-273.

Lai, C.-Y., Luo, H.-C., & Kuo, C.-Y. (2021). Research on the caring practices and

service difficulties in tribal culture and health service stations: A practitioner's

reflections. Journal of Community Work and Community Studies, 11(1), 1-44.

Leininger, M. (1988). Leininger's theory of nursing: Cultural care diversity and

universality. Nursing Science Quarterly, 1(4), 152-160.

Leininger, M. (2002). Culture care theory: A major contribution to advance

transcultural nursing knowledge and practices. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 13(3), 189-192.

Leininger, M. (2008). Overview of Leininger’s Theory of Culture Care Diversity and University.

Ministry of Health and Welfare. (2020). Taiwan Health and Welfare Report.

Parker, M. E., & Smith, M. C. (2010). Nursing Theories and Nursing Practice. F. A.

Davis Company.

Ru, H.-Y. (2015). The Importance of Cultural Care in the Long-Term Care of Indigenous

Peoples. Taiwan: A Radical Quarterly in Social Studies. 101, 293-302.

Ru, H.-Y., Li, H.-Y., & Yu, S.-N. (2019). Applications of cultural care in Indigenous

long-term care: Case studies from community and home occupational therapy

services. Formosa Journal of Mental Health, 32(2), 209-247.

Subeq, Y.-M., & Mutsu, H. (2016). A Reflection on the Policy of Transcultural Long-Term Care for the Indigenous Peoples in Taiwan. The Journal of Nursing, 63(3), 5-11.

Wang, G.-X. (2016). Exploration on factors associated with the service satisfaction

of community care stations: Extended study on the relationship between service satisfaction and annual assessment results. Open Public Administration Review

(OPAR), 29, 25-66.

Wang, T., & Frank, Y. (2019). Problematize Everyday Lives to Deconstruct Care Discourse.

Formosa Journal of Mental Health, 32(2), 131-139.

Wiles, J. L., Leibing, A., Guberman, N., Reeve, J., & Allen, R. E. S. (2012). The Meaning of “Aging in Place” to Older People. The Gerontologist, 52(3), 357-366.