Improving COVID-19 data protocols for Indigenous peoples in the U.S. and Canada: A public-media-based cross-national comparison

  • Haorui Wu Dalhousie University
  • Patricia Stukes
Keywords: COVID-19, Indigenous community, Trust, Communication, Public media, Top-down and bottom-up approaches, Data protocols

Abstract

In response to current calls by the World Health Organization and United Nations to prioritize data processes regarding COVID-19 and its impact on Indigenous Peoples worldwide, this exploratory paper aims to briefly identify barriers regarding data processes for Indigenous communities impacted by COVID-19 in Canada and the U.S. Built on emergent themes contributed by current research, the research conducted qualitatively public media analysis to address communication, distrust, and community participation as issues, barriers, and solutions for thorough and accurate data processes. Funding has been a long-term existing and primary issue in addressing these three themes. Federal governments of both countries could better support the Indigenous communities by providing adequate funding, following through with their pledges of support, and sharing detailed, accumulated data with tribal authorities, and tribal epidemiologists. Better communication among federal, state/provincial, and Indigenous community authorities would improve data collection and analysis. Stimulating bottom-up community participation in COVID-19 efforts, not only promotes the data processes in Indigenous communities, but also empowers the local communities’ leadership to develop solution-based responses. This cross-national pilot research sheds light on the necessity of international collaboration advancing Indigenous communities’ health and well-being in both disaster and non-disaster settings.

References

Almasy, S. (2020, July 3). Another day of record coronavirus cases as more states rethink mask mandate. CNN. Retrieved from https://www.cnn.com/2020/07/02/health/us-coronavirus-thursday/index.html

Ashworth, A. (2018). Understanding the factors influencing the Aboriginal health care experience. Canadian Journal of Dental Hygiene, 52(3), 208-212. Retrieved from https://files.cdha.ca/profession/journal/aAshworth.pdf

Baragona, S. (2020, April 16). Why COVID-19 Hit High-Income Countries Harder. VOA. Retrieved from https://www.voanews.com/covid-19-pandemic/why-covid-19-hit-high-income-countries-harder

Barrera, J., & Deer, J. (2020, May 12). Over 450 Indigenous COVID-19 cases across Canada and 7 deaths, reports Yellowhead Institute. CBC News. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/indigenous/yellowhead-institute-coronavirus-report-1.5565954

Bensadoun, E. (2020, April 18). Canada to spend $306M on Indigenous businesses struggling amid coronavirus pandemic. CTV News. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/the-week-in-covid-19-b-c-economy-improving-but-new-community-cases-show-virus-fight-far-from-over-1.5645819

Berkes, F., & Turner, N. J. (2006, April 11). Knowledge, learning and the evolution of conservation practice for social-ecological system resilience. Human Ecology, 34(4), 479-494. DOI: 10.1007/s10745-006-9008-2. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10745-006-9008-2

Blackstock, C., & Day, I. (2020, April 8). History will repeat itself if First Nations remain underfunded in the fight against COVID-19. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from https://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/article-history-will-repeat-itself-if-first-nations-remain-underfunded-in-the/

Brown, B. (2020, April 17). Tribal nations face unique challenge in battle against coronavirus. Fox News. Retrieved from https://www.foxnews.com/us/tribal-nations-face-unique-challenge-coronavirus-battle

Brown, B. (2020, July 4). Nunavik family boats to Nunavut community after loved one dies; COVID-19 limits cut visit short. CBC News. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/north/nunavik-family-sanikiluaq-nunavut-covid-19-1.5637036

California Tribal Epidemiology Center. (2020, July 10). Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situational Report #84. Retrieved From https://crihb.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/CTECs-COVID-19-Situational-Report-84.pdf

CBC News. (2020a, July 11). The week in COVID-19: B.C. economy improving, but new community cases show virus fight far from over. CBC News. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/the-week-in-covid-19-b-c-economy-improving-but-new-community-cases-show-virus-fight-far-from-over-1.5645819

CBC Radio-Canada. (2020b, April 30). Public Media serving in the time of a pandemic. CBC Radio-Canada. Retrieved from https://cbc.radio-canada.ca/en/media-centre/public-media-serving-in-the-time-of-a-pandemic

Centers for Disease Control & Protection [CDC]. (2020 June 25). COVID-19 in Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/racial-ethnic-minorities.html

Deer, J. (2020, May 06). Data gaps exist on COVID-19 cases in Indigenous communities, says research fellow. CBC News. Retrieved from https://www.cbc.ca/news/indigenous/coronavirus-indigenous-data-gap-1.5556676

Department of Health and Human Services. (2020, March 20). HHS announces upcoming action to provide funding to tribes for COVID-19 response. Retrieved from https://www.hhs.gov/about/news/2020/03/20/hhs-announces-upcoming-action-to-provide-funding-to-tribes-for-covid-19-response.html

Doshi, S., Jordan, A., Kelly, K., and Solomon, D. (2020, June 18). The COVID-19 Response in Indian Country: A Federal Failure. Center for American Progress Retrieved From https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/green/reports/2020/06/18/486480/covid-19-response-indian-country/

Federal Communications Commission. (2020, July 15). The U.S. government has established 3 top-level websites for the latest official information on Coronavirus (COVID-19). Retrieved from https://www.fcc.gov/coronavirus

Feedspot. (2020, July 10). Top 60 Canadian News Websites to Follow in 2020. Feedspot. Retrieved from https://blog.feedspot.com/canadian_news_websites/

Global Indigenous Data Alliance. (2019 September). CARE Principles for Indigenous Data Governance. Retrieved from https://www.gida-global.org/care

Hlavinka, E. (2020, May 21). COVID-19 Further Strains Care Disparities Among Native Americans — Underfunded IHS, isolation from resources pose major concern for tribes during pandemic. MedPage Today. Retrieved from https://www.medpagetoday.com/infectiousdisease/covid19/86633

Indian Health Services, (2020, July 14). COVID-19 Cases by IHS Area. Retrieved from https://www.ihs.gov/coronavirus/

Johns Hopkins University [JHU]. (2020). Coronavirus resource center. Retrieved from https://coronavirus.jhu.edu

Jones, A. M. (2020. May 10). Northern Sask. outbreak reveals plight of Indigenous communities during COVID-19. CTV News. Retrieved from https://www.ctvnews.ca/canada/northern-sask-outbreak-reveals-plight-of-indigenous-communities-during-covid-19-1.4933431

Jones, M., Weaver, S., Panahi, S., & Kamimura, A. (2018). Indigenous Peoples’ Health in the United States: Review of Outcomes and the Implementation of Community-Based Participatory Research. Diversity and Equality in Health and Care, 15(2), 66-70 Retrieved from https://diversityhealthcare.imedpub.com/indigenous-peoples-heath-in-the-united-states-of-america-review-of-lifestyle-issues-and-the-implementation-of-communitybased-parti.pdf

Kirkup, K. (2020, May 13). Congress of Aboriginal Peoples file court application over federal funding levels during COVID-19. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from https://www.theglobeandmail.com/politics/article-congress-of-aboriginal-peoples-file-court-application-over-federal/

Mercer, G. (2020, April 5). ‘We are not prepared’: Inuit brace for coronavirus to reach remote communities. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from https://www.theglobeandmail.com/canada/article-we-are-not-prepared-inuit-brace-for-coronavirus-to-reach-remote/

National Collaborating Center for Aboriginal Health [NCCAH]. (2013). An overview of aboriginal health in Canada. Retrieved from https://www.ccnsa-nccah.ca/docs/context/FS-OverviewAbororiginalHealth-EN.pdf

National Congress of American Indians. (2020, March 28). Third COVID-19 Relief Bill Becomes Law. Char-Koosta News. Retrieved from http://www.charkoosta.com/news/third-covid-19-relief-bill-becomes-law/article_17f57e0c-712e-11ea-ab90-2b1c6ad1f081.html

Nelson, Joseph. (2003, September). The Realities of a Tribal-to-Federal Relationship. The Cultural Survival Quarterly Magazine. Retrieved from https://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/realities-tribal-federal-relationship

Ortiz, E. (2020, May 21). Dispute over South Dakota tribal checkpoints escalates after Gov. Kristi Noem seeks federal help. NBC News. Retrieved from https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/dispute-over-south-dakota-tribal-checkpoints-escalates-after-gov-kristi-n1212161

Richmond, C., Castleden, H., & Gabel, C. (2020, June 22). ‘With so much at risk, we couldn’t just wait for help:' Indigenous communities and COVID-19. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from https://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/article-with-so-much-as-risk-we-couldnt-just-wait-for-help-indigenous/

Schumaker, E. (2020, April 23). Timeline: How coronavirus got started. ABC News. Retrieved from https://abcnews.go.com/Health/timeline-coronavirus-started/story?id=69435165

Silverman, H., Toropin, K., Sidner, S., and Perrot, L. (2020, May 18). Navajo Nation surpasses New York state for the highest Covid-19 infection rate in the US. CNN. Retrieved from https://www.cnn.com/2020/05/18/us/navajo-nation-infection-rate-trnd/index.html

Skye, C. (2020, May 12). Colonialism of The Curve: Indigenous Communities & Bad COVID Data. Yellowhead Institute. Retrieved from https://yellowheadinstitute.org/2020/05/12/colonialism-of-the-curve-indigenous-communities-and-bad-covid-data/

Smylie, J. (2010). Achieving Strength through Numbers: First Nations, Inuit, and Métis Health Information. Prince George: National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health. Retrieved from https://www.ccnsa-nccah.ca/docs/context/FS-OverviewAbororiginalHealth-EN.pdf.0

Schellekens, P. and Sourrouille, D. (2020, May 5). The unreal dichotomy in COVID-19 mortality between high-income and developing countries. The Brookings Institution. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/blog/future-development/2020/05/05/the-unreal-dichotomy-in-covid-19-mortality-between-high-income-and-developing-countries/

Statista. (2020, June 18) Coronavirus impact: increase in year-on-year viewership of leading cable news networks in the United States between March 2019 and March 2020, by number of primetime viewers. Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/statistics/1105352/cable-news-network-viewership-coronavirus-usa/

Tahir, D, & Cancryn, A. (2020, June 11). American Indian tribes thwarted in efforts to get

coronavirus data. POLITICO. Retrieved from https://www.politico.com/news/2020/06/11/native-american-coronavirus-data-314527

The Canadian Press. (2020a, February 27). Novel coronavirus in Canada: Here's a timeline of COVID-19 cases across the country. CTV News. Retrieved from https://www.ctvnews.ca/canada/novel-coronavirus-in-canada-here-s-a-timeline-of-covid-19-cases-across-the-country-1.4829917

The Canadian Press. (2020b, March 6). Inuit concerned about potential spread of COVID-19 in North. CTV News. Retrieved from https://www.ctvnews.ca/health/coronavirus/inuit-concerned-about-potential-spread-of-covid-19-in-north-1.4842267?cache=%3FclipId%3D104066%2F5-things-to-know-for-tuesday-september-24-2019-1.4607343

United Nations. (2020, July 23). COVID-19 and Indigenous Peoples. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/development/desa/indigenouspeoples/covid-19.html

Wu, H., & Karabanow, J. (2020). COVID-19 and beyond: Social work interventions for supporting homeless population. International Social Work, 1-4, DOI: 10.1177/0020872820949625. Retrieved from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0020872820949625

Wright, T. (2020, May 13). Indigenous group files legal challenge over 'inadequate' COVID-19 funding. CTV News. Retrieved from https://www.ctvnews.ca/health/coronavirus/indigenous-group-files-legal-challenge-over-inadequate-covid-19-funding-1.4937682

Published
2020-11-01