‘You Know What You Know’: An Indigenist Methodology with Haudenosaunee Grandmothers
This paper will reflect upon an Indigenist methodology that was used for a qualitative re-search study with 15 Haudenosaunee grandmothers from the Six Nations community who were caring for their grandchildren on a full-time basis. The guiding Haudenosaunee epistemology and world-views are highlighted. Furthermore, the processes involved in the preparation, gathering narratives, making meaning and presenting the grandmothers’ stories are reviewed. The teachings and lessons that emerge within this critical reflection are discussed and highlighted as a means of articulating an Indigenist re-search methodology that is centered in Indigenous knowledge and ways of knowing.
Absolon, K.E. (2011). Kaandosswin: How we come to know. Winnipeg, MB: Fernwood Publishing.
Absolon, K., & Willett, C. (2005). Putting ourselves forward: Location in Aboriginal research. In L. Brown & S. Strega (Eds.), Research as resistance: Critical, Indigenous and anti-oppressive research approaches (pp.97-125). Toronto, ON: Canadian Scholars’ Press Inc.
Anderson, K. (2000). A recognition of being: Reconstructing Native womanhood. Toronto, ON: Sumach Press.
Ball, J. (2005). “‘Nothing about us without us’: Restorative research partnerships involving Indigenous children and communities in Canada.” In A. Farrell (Ed.), Ethical research with children (pp. 81-96). Berkshire, UK: Open University Press/McGraw Hill Education.
Barreiro, J. (2010). Thinking Indian: A John Mohawk reading. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing.
Baskin, C. (2016). Strong helpers’ teachings: The value of Indigenous knowledges in the helping professions. (2nd ed.). Toronto, ON: Canadian Scholars’ Press Inc.
Coburn, E. (2013). Indigenous research as resistance. Journal of the Society for Socialist Studies, 9, 1, 52-63. Retrieved from http://www.socialiststudies.com/index.php/sss/article/view/23524/17409.
Ermine, W. (1995). Aboriginal epistemology. In M. Battiste & J. Barman (Eds.), First nations education in Canada: The circle unfolds (pp. 101-112). Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia.
Green, J. (2009). Gyawaglaab (Helping one another): Approaches to best practices through teachings of Oolichan fishing. In R. Sinclair, M.A. Hart, & G. Bruyere (Eds.), Wicihitowin: Aboriginal social work in Canada (pp. 222-233). Winnipeg, MB: Fernwood Publishing.
Hampton, E. (1995). Memory comes before knowledge: Research may improve if researchers remember their motives. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 21, 46-54.
Hart, M.A. (2007). Indigenous knowledge and research: The mikiwahp as a symbol for reclaiming our knowledge and ways of knowing. The First Peoples Child & Family Review, 3(1), 83-90. Retrieved from http://www.fncfcs.ca.
Hart, M.A. (2009). For Indigenous people, by Indigenous people, with Indigenous people: Toward an Indigenist research paradigm. In R. Sinclair, M.A. Hart, & G. Bruyere (Eds.), Wicihitowin: Aboriginal social work in Canada (pp. 153-169). Winnipeg, MB: Fernwood Publishing.
Hart, M.A. (2010). Indigenous worldviews, knowledge, and research: The development of an Indigenous research paradigm. Journal of Indigenous Voices in Social Work, 1(1), 1-16.
Jacques, F. (1997). Use of the Good Mind. Winds of Change, 12(2), 46-49.
Kovach, M. (2009). Indigenous methodologies: Characteristics, conversations, and contexts. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.
Kovach, M. (2015). Emerging from the margins: Indigenous methodologies. In L. Brown & S. Strega (Eds.), Research as Resistance: Revisiting critical, Indigenous, and anti-oppressive approaches (2nd ed.) (pp. 43-64). Toronto, ON: Canadian Scholars’ Press Inc.
Lavallée, L.F. (2009). Practical application of an Indigenous research framework and two qualitative Indigenous research methods: Sharing circles and Anishnaabe symbol-based reflection. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 8(1), 21-40.
Lee, J. (2009). Decolonizing Maori narratives: Purakau as a method. MAI Review, 2, 1-12. Retrieved from http://ojs.review.mai.ac.nz.
Loppie, C. (2007). Learning from the grandmothers: Incorporating Indigenous principals into qualitative research. Qualitative Health Research, 17(2), 276-284.
Lyons, O. (1984). Spirituality, equality, and Natural Law. In L. Little Bear, M. Bolt, and Anthony Long (Eds.), Pathways to self-determination: Canadian Indians and the Canadian state. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.
Michell, H. (2009). Gathering berries in a Northern context: Woodlands Cree metaphor for community-based research. Pimatisiwin: A Journal of Aboriginal and Indigenous Community Health, 7(1), 65-73.
Mohawk, J. (1986). Prologue. In P. Wallace (Ed.), White Roots of Peace: The Iroquois Book of Life (p. xxi). Saranac Lake, NY: Chauncy Press.Ontario Federation of Indigenous Friendship Centres (OFIFC). (2006). “Good Mind” Ontario Federation of Indian Friendship Centres mental health strategies 2006. Retrieved from https://www.wcdsb.ca/.../mental-health/.../Good-Mind-OFIFC-Health-Strategie.pdf
Ontario Federation of Indigenous Friendship Centres (OFIFC). (2012). USAI research framework. Retrieved from http://ofifc.org/sites/default/files/docs/USAI%20Research%20Framework%20Booklet%202012.pdf.
Potts, K. L. & Brown, L. (2015). Becoming an anti-oppressive researcher In L. Brown & S. Strega (Eds.), Research as Resistance: Revisiting critical, Indigenous, and anti-oppressive approaches (2nd ed.) (pp. 17-42). Toronto, ON: Canadian Scholars’ Press Inc.
Shimony, A.A. (1994). Conservatism among the Iroquois of the Six Nations reserve. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.
Simpson, L.B. (2011). Dancing on our turtle’s back: Stories of Nishnaabeg recreation, resurgence and a new emergence. Winnipeg, MB: Arp Books.
Strega, S. & Brown, L. 2005. From resistance to resurgence. In L. Brown & S. Strega (Eds.), Research as Resistance: Revisiting critical, Indigenous, and anti-oppressive approaches (2nd ed.) (pp. 1-16). Toronto, ON: Canadian Scholars’ Press Inc.
Smith, L. T. (1999). Decolonizing methodologies: Research and Indigenous peoples. London, UK: Zed Books.
Smith, L.T. (2012). Decolonizing methodologies: Research and Indigenous peoples (2nd ed.). London, UK: Zed Books.
Wilson, D. & Restoule, JP. (2010). Tobacco ties: The relationship of the sacred research. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 25( 2), 29-45.
Wilson, S. (2008). Research is ceremony: Indigenous research methods. Winnipeg, MB: Fernwood Publishing.