Resilience, Hope, and Concrete Plans of Action for Schools and Caring Communities


  • Nancy Maynes Nipissing University
  • Joanne Kmiec Nipissing University



This paper presents a hypothetical framework (as a four-part model in diagram form) for the examination of the concept of resilience as it relates to child development. Resilience is considered from a socio-ecological perspective. The relationship between resilience and stress is explored and stress and interventions from both internal and external sources is examined in relation to the promotion of resilient behaviours in children. Reported efforts to influence children’s resilience are examined for common features, resulting in a four-part model, which will lead to further research. The common features of current efforts by schools to increase resilience in children include: 1) support students to help them recognize alternatives; 2) make students mindful of their options; 3) create supports that help students act with intentionality; and 4) help students think in longer terms and move toward establishing consistency in their behaviours to help them reach life goals. The connections between increased resilience, mindful acts, intentionality, and long-term goals are considered.