Inclusion of Students with Special Education Needs in French as a Second Language Programs: A Review of Canadian Policy and Resource Documents
Keywords:special education needs, inclusion, French as a Second Language
AbstractThis article describes a document analysis of policy and resource documents pertaining to inclusion of students with special education needs (SSEN) in Canadian French as a Second Language (FSL) programs. By recognizing gaps and acknowledging advancements, we aim to inform current implementation and future development of inclusive policy. Document analysis of a) special education documents and b) FSL policy and support documents revealed that over 80% of provincial and territorial education ministries currently refer to inclusion of SSEN in FSL. With the intent of remediating identified inconsistencies in actual application, this article concludes with specific recommendations to enhance inclusive practice.
Alberta Education (2004). Indicators of inclusive schools: Continuing the conversation. Edmonton, AB: Author.
Alberta Education. (2013). Resources to support students with diverse learning needs for francophone and French immersion schools. Edmonton, AB: Author.
Arnett, K. (2013a). French second language exemptions: Should students with learning difficulties be excused from French? Canada Education. Retrieved from: http://www.cea-ace.ca/education-canada/article/french-second-language-exemptions
Arnett, K. (2013b). The genesis and perpetuation of exemptions and transfers from French second language programs for students with diverse learning needs: A preliminary examination and their link to inclusion. In C. Mady. (Ed.), Minority populations in Canadian second language education (pp.103-117). Toronto: Multilingual Matters.
Arnett, K. & Fortune, T. (2004). The bridge strategies for helping underperforming immersion learners succeed. ACIE Newsletter. May, 1-8.
Bourgoin, R. (2014). Inclusionary practices in French immersion: A need to link research to practice. Canadian Journal for New Scholars in Education. 5(1), 1-11.
Bowen, G. (2009). Document analysis as a qualitative research method. Qualitative Research Journal 9 (2), 27-40.
British Colombia Ministry of Education. (2001). Core French 5 to 12: integrated resource package 5 to 12. Victoria, BC: Author.
Bruck, M. (1985). Predictors of transfer out of early French immersion programs. Applied
Psycholinguistics, 6, 39-61.
Campbell, A. (2013, July 5) Why French immersion should be in all schools – or none at all. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/education/why-french-immersion-should-be-in-all-schools-or-none-at-all/article12999772/
Canadian Parents for French. (2008). The state of French second language education in Canada. Ottawa, ON: Author.
Carr, W. (2007). Teaching core French in British Columbia: Teachers’ perspectives. Vancouver, BC: British Columbia Association of Teachers of Modern Languages.
Connick, M. & Regan, V. (2007). French in Canada: Language issues. New York : Peter Lang.
Cooper, A. (2010) “Knowledge Brokers: A Promising Knowledge Mobilization Strategy to Increase Research Use in Education”, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting for American Education Research Association, Denver, Colorado. Retrieved from http://www.oise.utoronto.ca/rspe/Publications_Reports_Conferences/index.html#CSSE_2010
Cooper, B. S., Fusarelli, L. D., & Randall, E. V. (2004). Better policies, better schools: Theories and applications. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Croll, J., & Lee, P. (2008). A comprehensive review of French second language programs and services within the Anglophone sector of the New Brunswick Department of Education. Fredericton, N.B. Retrieved from: http://www.gnb.ca/0000/publications/comm/FSL%20Report.pdf
Delaney, J. G. (2002). Educational policy studies: a practical approach. Calgary, AB: Detselig Enterprises.
Dicks, J. (2008). The case for early immersion. Retrieved from: http://www.unb.ca/fredericton/second-language/_resources/pdf/lricnotes/spring2008.pdf
Government of Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Education. (2011). Service delivery model for students with exceptionalities: Professional learning package fall 2011. St. John’s, NL: Author.
Government of Saskatchewan: Education. (2000). Directions for Diversity. Regina, SK: Author.
Gouvernement de Terre-Neuve Labrador Département d’Éducation. (2010). Programme d’études français Maternelle - Immersion. Saint-Jean, T-N,: Auteur.
Lapkin, S., MacFarlane, A., & Vandergrift, L. (2006). Teaching French in Canada: FSL teachers’ perspectives. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Teachers’ Federation.
Lapkin, S., Mady, C. & Arnott, S. (2009). Research perspectives on core French: A literature review, Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 12(2), 6-30.
Loreman, T. (2007). Seven pillars of support for inclusive education: moving from “why?” to “how?”. International Journal of Whole Schooling, 3(2), 22-39.
Mady, C. & Black, G. (2012). Access to French as a second official language programs in English-dominant Canada. Alberta Journal of Educational Research 57 (4) 498-501.
Manitoba Education and Youth. (2003). Diversity and equity in education. Winnipeg, MB: Author.
Manitoba Education and Youth. (2007). French immersion handbook for leaders.
Winnipeg, MB: Author.
Manitoba Education and Training. (2014). French: Communication and culture Grades 4 to 12. Winnipeg, MB: Author.
McHardie, D. (2014). Early French immersion should be restored, expert says. CBC News Posted: Sep 05, 2014 9:12 AM AT, Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/new-brunswick/early-french-immersion-should-be-restored-expert-says-1.2756599
Modern Languages Council (2014). Inclusivity and Students with Special Needs. Retrieved from http://omlta.org/wp-content/uploads/MLC/Inclusivity_and_Students_With_Special_Education_Needs_FINAL.pdf
Mollica, A., Philips, G., & Smith, M. (2005). Teaching and learning French as a second language: Core French in the elementary schools in Ontario. Report prepared for the Ontario Modern Language Teachers’ Association.
Northwest Territories. (2008). Education Act. Yellowknife, NWT: Author.
Nova Scotia Department of Education. (2016). Special education policy. Halifax, NS: Author
Ontario College of Teachers (2014). Accreditation Resource Guide. Toronto, ON: Author.
Ontario Ministry of Education. (2004). The Individual Education Plan (IEP): A resource guide. Toronto, ON: Author.
Ontario Ministry of Education. (2009). Ontario’s equity and inclusive education strategy. Toronto, ON: Author.
Ontario Ministry of Education. (2013). The Ontario curriculum: French as a second language, core French grades 4-8, extended French grades 4-8, French immersion grades 1-8. Toronto, ON: Author.
Ontario Ministry of Education. (2014). The Ontario curriculum: French as a second language, core, extended, and immersion French, Grades 9-12. Toronto, ON: Author.
Ontario Ministry of Education. (2015). Including students with special education needs in French as a second language programs. Toronto, ON: Author.
Prince Edward Island Department of Education. (2005). Individualized Educational Planning (IEP) Standards and Guidelines: A handbook for educators. Charlottetown, PE: Author.
Turnbull, M., Hart, D., & Lapkin, S. (2003). Grade 6 French immersion students’ performance on large-scale reading, writing, and mathematics tests: Building explanations. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 49(1), 6-23.
Willms, J. (2008, April). The case for universal French instruction, Canadian Research Institute for Social Policy, University of New Brunswick. [Web log comment]. Retrieved from: http://bc-yk.cpf.ca/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/The-Case-for-Universal-French-Instruction.pdf
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
a. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
b. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.