Equipped for Life in the Boreal Forest: The Role of the Stress Axis in Mammals
Keywords:stress axis, maternal programming, predation risk, hibernation, life history, longevity, territoriality, DHEA, adrenal androgens, snowshoe hare cycle
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (stress axis) plays a central role in equipping mammals to succeed in the challenging environment of the boreal forest. Over the last 20 years, we have tackled a broad range of topics to understand how the stress axis functions in four key herbivore species. The central challenge for snowshoe hares is coping with their predators, whereas for the others, it is primarily coping with each other (especially during reproduction) and with their physical environment. Hares are severely stressed by their predators during the population decline. The predator threat causes major changes in the stress axis of hares and reduces their reproduction; in addition, acting through maternal programming, it is the most plausible explanation for the extended period of low numbers following the population decline. Arctic ground squirrel males have an intense breeding season for two to three weeks in early spring, after which many of them die. The functioning of their stress axis changes markedly and is key in meeting their energy demands during this period. In contrast, red-backed vole males, though also short-lived, breed repeatedly only in the summer of their life, and their stress axis shows no change in function. However, their reproductive effort negatively affects their long-term survival. Territorial red squirrels experience marked interannual fluctuations in their major food source (white spruce seed), resulting in major fluctuations in their densities and consequently in the intensity of territorial competition. Changes in the densities of red squirrels also alter maternal stress hormone levels, inducing adaptive plasticity in offspring postnatal growth rates that prepares offspring for the environment they will encounter at independence. To survive winter, red squirrels need to defend their territories year-round, and the basis of this defense appears to be adrenal dehydroepiandrosterone, which has the benefits, but not the costs, of gonadal steroids. Arctic ground squirrels survive winter by hibernating in deeply frozen ground. Unlike all other hibernators, they have evolved a unique adaptation: high levels of adrenal androgens in summer to accumulate protein reserves that they then burn in winter. With a rapidly changing climate, the stress axis will play a key role in permitting northern animals to adapt, but the linkages between the changes in the abiotic and biotic components of the boreal forest and the phenotypic plasticity in the stress response of its inhabitants are not well understood for these or any other herbivore species.