Offshore Distances of Bowhead Whales (<i>Balaena mysticetus</i>) Observed during Fall in the Beaufort Sea, 1982–2000: An Alternative Interpretation
Keywords: Alaska, Arctic, Balaena mysticetus, Beaufort Sea, bowhead whales, distribution, ice cover, migration
AbstractNineteen years (1982– 2000) of sighting data from fall aerial surveys of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea were analyzed to determine how patterns in the distribution of migrating bowhead whales relate to annual sea-ice conditions. Transect sighting rate (transect sightings/km) indicated (ANOVA; F2, 980 = 143.84, p < 0.0001) that bowhead whales occurred farther offshore in years of heavy ice conditions (73.4 km, 95% CL: 67.2–79.6 km) than in years of moderate (49.3 km, 95% CL: 44.8–53.84 km), or light (31.2 km, 95% CL: 30.0–32.4 km) ice conditions. The most plausible explanation for the observed pattern in bowhead whale distribution is that in years of heavy ice conditions (annual pack ice; 1983, 1988, 1991), the developing landfast ice limits availability of shallow nearshore habitat, thus necessitating use of leads and ice openings in deeper water. We acknowledge that factors such as bathymetry, ocean currents, transport, and food availability may also interact to influence autumn distribution of bowhead whales. In heavy ice years, however, these factors likely exert less influence on bowhead whale distribution than in years with light to moderate ice conditions.