ARCTIC 2021-06-09T08:29:34-06:00 Melanie Paulson Open Journal Systems <p><em>Arctic</em> is North America's premier journal of northern research! Now in its seventh decade of continuous publishing, <em>Arctic</em> contains contributions from any area of scholarship dealing with the polar and subpolar regions of the world. Articles in <em>Arctic</em> present original research and have withstood intensive peer review. <em>Arctic</em> also publishes reviews of new books on the North, profiles of significant people, places and northern events, and topical commentaries.</p> “We Never Get Stuck:” A Collaborative Analysis of Change and Coastal Community Subsistence Practices in the Northern Bering and Chukchi Seas, Alaska 2021-06-09T08:29:34-06:00 Henry P. Huntington Julie Raymond-Yakoubian George Noongwook Noah Naylor Cyrus Harris Qaiyaan Harcharek Billy Adams <p class="p2">The Indigenous communities of the northern Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea are experiencing extensive social, economic, and technological change. The region’s marine ecosystem is also characterized by a high degree of variability and by rapid change. Residents of eight coastal communities from Savoonga to Utqiaġvik were involved in the Chukchi Coastal Communities Project, which used the results of a literature review together with the experiences of the community participants to co-analyze what is known about societal and environmental change in the region and what the communities’ experiences have been in responding to those changes. Some of the observed changes are transient in duration and effect, such as the passage of an individual ship, whereas others, such as the creation of the Red Dog Mine Port Site, persist and may force coastal residents to make lasting changes in their activities. Some responses can use existing knowledge (e.g., hunting bowhead whales in fall as well as spring), whereas others may require learning and experimentation (e.g., harvesting new species such as the Hanasaki crab). Our findings show that the results of a change are more important than the source of the change. They also emphasize the continuing importance of traditional values and practices as well as attitudes conducive to persistence and innovation. Indigenous leadership is an essential component of continued resilience as the ecosystem continues to change. The resilient characteristics of coastal communities and their ability to determine their own responses to change need greater attention to match the research effort directed at understanding the ecosystem.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2021-06-07T16:38:04-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC Ringed Seal Diet and Body Condition in the Amundsen Gulf region, Eastern Beaufort Sea 2021-06-09T08:29:06-06:00 Stephen J. Insley Lila M. Tauzer William D. Halliday Joe Illasiak Ryan Green Adam Kudlak Jeff Kuptana <p class="p2">Diet from stomach contents and body condition from morphometric measurements were obtained for 169 (108 stomachs analysed) ringed seals (<em>Pusa hispida</em>) for the Amundsen Gulf region in the western Canadian Arctic from 2015 to 2018. Sampling was from subsistence-harvested seals from the three communities of Paulatuk (spring, summer, and autumn), Sachs Harbour (summer), and Ulukhaktok (winter), Northwest Territories. Stomach contents were separated through sieves and by hand, and taxa identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible and weighed. Stomachs were fullest (by weight and prey count) in the autumn, which suggests that foraging was most intense and successful at that time. A total of 93 prey taxa, including 17 fish and 76 invertebrate species were identified. Several fish and invertebrate species were regularly found together, the most common being Arctic cod (<em>Boreogadus saida</em>), sand lance (<em>Ammodytes hexapterus</em>), capelin (<em>Mallotus villosus</em>), and hyperiid amphipods (<em>Themisto </em>spp.). Condition measurements inferred from blubber thickness, although showing considerable variation among sites and years, had a seasonal relationship with maximal depth during the autumn and winter. Overall, the diet of ringed seals in Amundsen Gulf was broadly similar to those reported from other areas while also indicating some degree of regional specificity. When compared to the diet of ringed seals in the same area in the 1980s, the results presented here were more diverse, with new or increased numbers of subarctic species (e.g., saffron cod, <em>Eleginus gracilis</em>) found in the samples. This finding is a likely consequence of climate warming, as increasing numbers of subarctic species move north with warming ocean temperatures in the Arctic.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2021-06-08T10:54:29-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC Responding to COVID-19: Contextual, Pedagogical, and Experiential Considerations from Canadian Northern Postsecondary Educators 2021-06-09T08:28:37-06:00 Kerry Lynn Durnford Kim Lemky Pertice Moffitt Perez Oyugi Kathie Pender Tammy Soanes-White Gloria Bott <p class="p2">The COVID-19 pandemic forced the closure of face-to-face classes in a northern Canadian college in March 2020. Educators and staff went into rapid response mode to continue teaching and supporting students from a distance. Critical reflections were written by the authors to summarize their responses to teaching and learning during the early phases of the pandemic. These reflections were themed, considered individually and collectively, then analyzed and synthesized. In this paper, critical reflection is used as an educational process within the context of critical constructivism and transformative paradigms. We share how teaching during the pandemic solidified our commitment to students and cemented our critical pedagogy by thinking and acting critically to assist students with this disruption in their education. Equipped with these capabilities, educators are empowered to work with students to problem solve and transform our educative lives for a just society. An inter-professional opportunity across programs, spurred by the pandemic, meets organizational strategic directions and fosters a promising relationality. Increased territorial and local technological supports and internal professional development is needed to solidify the immense prospects for distance education as the College transitions to a polytechnic university.</p> 2021-06-08T11:03:53-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC Media Coverage of Environmental and Social Change in Northern Norway’s Coastal Regions: Main Themes in National and International News 2021-06-09T08:28:09-06:00 Bjørn P. Kaltenborn Jenny F. Kaltenborn Barbara B. Baczynska Just Kornfeldt Grete K. Hovelsrud <p class="p2">Media are important agents in the shaping of northern images. Media coverage influences public perceptions and policy governing resource and societal development. But popular media often provide incomplete and skewed representations compared to the documentation provided by scientific literature and the range of activities and interests present in a region. We conducted a topic analysis of media coverage of environmental and social change in the Helgeland, Lofoten, and Vesterålen regions in northern Norway and Svalbard in the high Arctic during approximately 2014 to 2018. Our findings show that popular media collectively contribute to an image of expanding economic development based on natural resource exploitation. However, this narrative is incomplete in terms of the societal dynamics linked to natural resource development as documented in the scientific literature and somewhat biased towards climate change, oil and gas exploitation, tourism, and marine harvesting. Emergency preparedness issues and economic transitions are under-communicated, and we conclude that the popular media narrative only partly represents an alternative to the government policy discourse on northern issues.</p> 2021-06-08T11:16:14-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC Limnological Characteristics Reveal Metal Pollution Legacy in Lakes near Canada’s Northernmost Mine, Little Cornwallis Island, Nunavut 2021-06-09T08:27:38-06:00 Branaavan Sivarajah Neal Michelutti Xiaowa Wang Christopher Grooms John P. Smol <p class="p2">We compared modern limnological characteristics of three lakes near the world’s northernmost base metal (lead-zinc) mine, Polaris Mine, which operated from 1981 to 2002 on Little Cornwallis Island (Nunavut, Canada), to a suite of sites from Resolute Bay (Qausuittuq), Cornwallis Island. Although both study regions are underlain by broadly similar geology and experience nearly identical climatic conditions, present-day water chemistry variables differed markedly between sites on the two islands. Specifically, the lakes near the Polaris Mine recorded substantially higher concentrations of zinc and lead, as well as several other heavy metals (cadmium, molybdenum, nickel, uranium, vanadium), relative to the sites on Cornwallis Island. Although the Polaris Mine closed in 2002, elevated levels of heavy metals in our 2017 survey are likely a legacy of contamination from prior operations.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2021-06-08T11:25:54-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC Do Wild Polar Bears (<i>Ursus maritimus</i>) Use Tools When Hunting Walruses (<i>Odobenus rosmarus</i>)? 2021-06-09T08:27:08-06:00 Ian Stirling Kristin L. Laidre Erik W. Born <p class="p2">Since the late 1700s, reports of polar bears (<em>Ursus maritimus</em>) using tools (i.e., pieces of ice or stones) to kill walruses (<em>Odobenus rosmarus</em>) have been passed on verbally to explorers and naturalists by their Inuit guides, based on local traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) as well as accounts of direct observations or interpretations of tracks in the snow made by the Inuit hunters who reported them. To assess the possibility that polar bears may occasionally use tools to hunt walruses in the wild, we summarize 1) observations described to early explorers and naturalists by Inuit hunters about polar bears using tools, 2) more recent documentation in the literature from Inuit hunters and scientists, and 3) recent observations of a polar bear in a zoo spontaneously using tools to access a novel food source. These observations and previously published experiments on brown bears (<em>Ursus arctos</em>) confirm that, in captivity, polar and brown bears are both capable of conceptualizing the use of a tool to obtain a food source that would otherwise not be accessible. Based on the information from all our sources, this may occasionally also have been the case in the wild. We suggest that possible tool use by polar bears in the wild is infrequent and mainly limited to hunting walruses because of their large size, difficulty to kill, and their possession of potentially lethal weapons for both their own defense and the direct attack of a predator.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2021-06-08T11:57:11-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC How Reindeer Herders Cope with Harsh Winter Conditions in Northern Finland: Insights from an Interview Study 2021-06-09T08:26:39-06:00 Minna Turunen Päivi Soppela Cara Ocobock <p class="p2">Reindeer herding involves hard physical work carried out in a cold climate under variable weather conditions. In the fall and winter, herders’ work in northern Finland includes collecting and moving reindeer herds to round-up sites, working in round-ups, slaughtering and processing meat as well as daily feeding and monitoring of the animals in the field. To study the experiences and perceptions of coping with cold among physically active herders in harsh winter conditions, we interviewed 22 herders from six herding districts of the central reindeer management area within the north boreal coniferous forest zone. We focused on behavioral and cultural strategies that accompany the physiological cold adaptations. Semi-structured interviews revealed that the main behavioral and cultural strategies used by herders to successfully carry out their duties while avoiding cold-related injury include clothing, physical activity, nutrition, and shelter as well as protecting vehicles and devices. Herders across sex, age, and herding district reported using modern layered clothing developed for extreme conditions, often combined with traditional footwear and clothes made of reindeer fur or woollen fabric. In addition, herders increase their physical activity; eat warm, energy-rich foods; make fires; stay overnight or take breaks in a house or a cabin, a car, or other protected places to reduce exposure to the harsh environment. Coping with extreme conditions not only requires flexibility, preparedness, and innovation from the herders but also thoughtful caution when approaching and managing unexpected situations. We conclude that modernization of reindeer husbandry, climate change, and rapidly increasing land use competition not only drive herders to modify their behavioral and cultural coping mechanisms for extreme weather conditions but may also create new, unexpected vulnerabilities.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2021-06-08T12:05:43-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC Food, Mobility, and Health in a 17th and 18th Century Arctic Mining Population in Silbojokk, Swedish Sápmi 2021-06-09T08:26:10-06:00 Markus Fjellström Åsa Lindgren Olalla López-Costas Gunilla Eriksson Kerstin Lidén <p class="p2">Established in 1635, the silver mine of Nasafjäll and the smeltery site in Silbojokk in Swedish Sápmi were used during several phases until the late 19th century. Excavations in Silbojokk, c. 40 km from Nasafjäll, have revealed buildings such as a smeltery, living houses, a bakery, and a church with a churchyard. From the beginning, both local and non-local individuals worked at the mine and the smeltery. Non-locals were recruited to work in the mine and at the smeltery, and the local Sámi population was recruited to transport the silver down to the Swedish coast. Females, males, and children of different ages were represented among the individuals buried at the churchyard in Silbojokk, which was used between c. 1635 and 1770. Here we study diet, mobility, and exposure to lead (Pb) in the smeltery workers, the miners, and the local population. By employing isotopic analysis, δ<span class="s2">13</span>C, δ<span class="s2">15</span>N, δ<span class="s2">34</span>S, <span class="s2">87</span>Sr/<span class="s2">86</span>Sr and elemental analysis, we demonstrate that individuals in Silbojokk had a homogenous diet, except for two individuals. In addition, both local and non-local individuals were all exposed to Pb, which in some cases could have been harmful to their health.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2021-06-08T13:19:48-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC Woman with the Iceberg Eyes: Oriana F. Wilson, by Katherine MacInnes 2021-06-09T08:25:42-06:00 Joanna Kafarowski 2021-06-08T13:48:10-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC Books Received and Papers to Appear in ARCTIC 2021-06-09T08:23:14-06:00 Editor 2021-06-08T14:36:29-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC ANDY HEIBERG (1938 – 2021) 2021-06-09T08:25:06-06:00 Jamie Morison 2021-06-08T13:57:41-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC Seven Hours, a Rubber Dinghy, and a Shipwreck: The Search for Nova Zembla 2021-06-09T08:24:28-06:00 Matt Ayre 2021-06-08T14:04:18-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC AINA News 2021-06-09T08:23:51-06:00 Editor 2021-06-08T14:07:33-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC