ARCTIC 2021-03-26T22:24:44-06:00 Melanie Paulson Open Journal Systems <p><em>Arctic</em> is North America's premier journal of northern research! Now in its seventh decade of continuous publishing, <em>Arctic</em> contains contributions from any area of scholarship dealing with the polar and subpolar regions of the world. Articles in <em>Arctic</em> present original research and have withstood intensive peer review. <em>Arctic</em> also publishes reviews of new books on the North, profiles of significant people, places and northern events, and topical commentaries.</p> A Nexus Approach to Water, Energy, and Food Security in Northern Canada 2021-03-21T08:26:50-06:00 David Natcher Shawn Ingram <p class="p2">Residents of northern Canada experience high rates of water, energy, and food (WEF) insecurity relative to the national average. Historically, WEF systems have been treated independently with little policy or institutional coordination occurring between sectors. This paper presents the results of a WEF nexus analysis for northern Canada. We assess the positive and negative interactions between the WEF sectors that could facilitate or impede the attainment of WEF-related sustainable development goals. Out of 210 pair-wise interactions, 87% were found to be synergistic of some magnitude, meaning that efforts to address insecurity in one WEF sector will have positive spillover effects toward the others. With synergies significantly outweighing trade-offs, opportunities exist to simultaneously address WEF insecurities through mutually beneficial actions that capitalize on and promote synergetic policies.</p> 2021-03-16T17:15:13-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC Distribution and Population Size of Emperor Geese during the Breeding Season on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska 2021-03-26T22:24:44-06:00 Tyler L. Lewis Tasha J. Dimarzio Jason L. Schamber <p class="p2">The Emperor Goose (<em>Anser canagicus</em>) is a year-round occupant of northern latitudes, spending its entire annual cycle in coastal habitats of western Alaska and the Russian Far East. Over the last several decades, the Emperor Goose population underwent a pronounced decline, prompting 30 consecutive years of harvest closures, followed by a protracted recovery and the recent reopening of harvest. This recovery was primarily documented on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, where an estimated 80% – 90% of the world’s Emperor Goose population breeds. However, the size and status of their population on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, which is their only other significant breeding area in North America, remains almost completely unknown. Therefore, to better inform population and harvest management of Emperor Geese in western Alaska, we conducted extensive aerial surveys of Emperor Geese along the northern coast of the Seward Peninsula during the breeding season. During the summer of 2018, we surveyed 150 transects totaling 351 km<span class="s2">2</span>, for a total sampled fraction of 7.2% of the 4853 km<span class="s2">2 </span>survey area. Using a double-observer technique that accounted for detection probability, we estimated a population of 1226 (95% CI: 792 – 1660) Emperor Geese on the Seward Peninsula, of which 614 (95% CI: 416 – 811) were considered breeding birds based on their observed status as singles or pairs. Most Emperor Geese (61%) were found on barrier islands, even though these islands accounted for just 3.5% of the total survey area; the remaining geese were found in lowland coastal habitats (23%) or upland tundra (16%). Overall, our surveys indicate a small breeding population of Emperor Geese on the Seward Peninsula, which raises some conservation concern. Further reductions or extinction of this small population would leave Emperor Geese with only one significant breeding area in North America. Because Emperor Geese typically display high breeding site fidelity and female natal philopatry, any future growth of this small population will likely to need to come from within.</p> 2021-03-16T17:23:41-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC Testing Whether Camera Presence Influences Habitat Specific Predation Pressure on Artificial Shorebird Nests in the Arctic 2021-03-21T08:25:56-06:00 Kevin G. Young Lisa V. Kennedy Paul A. Smith Erica Nol <p class="p2">When monitoring the breeding ecology of birds, the causes and times of nest failure can be difficult to determine. Cameras placed near nests allow for accurate monitoring of nest fate, but their presence may increase the risk of predation by attracting predators, leading to biased results. The relative influence of cameras on nest predation risk may also depend on habitat because predator numbers or behaviour can change in response to the availability or accessibility of nests. We evaluated the impact of camera presence on the predation rate of artificial nests placed within mesic tundra habitats used by Arctic-breeding shorebirds. We deployed 94 artificial nests, half with cameras and half without, during the shorebird-nesting season of 2015 in the East Bay Migratory Bird Sanctuary, Nunavut. Artificial nests were distributed evenly across sedge meadow and supratidal habitats typically used by nesting shorebirds. We used the Cox proportional hazards model to assess differential nest survival in relation to camera presence, habitat type, placement date, and all potential interactions. Artificial nests with cameras did not experience higher predation risk than those without cameras. Predation risk of artificial nests was related to an interaction between habitat type and placement date. Nests deployed in sedge meadows and in supratidal habitats later in the season were subject to a higher risk of predation than those deployed in supratidal habitats early in the season. These differences in predation risk are likely driven by the foraging behaviour of Arctic fox (<em>Vulpes lagopus</em>), a species that accounted for 81% of observed predation events in this study. Arctic fox prey primarily on Arvicoline prey and goose eggs at this site and take shorebird nests opportunistically, perhaps more often later in the season when their preferred prey becomes scarcer. This study demonstrates that, at this site, cameras used for nest monitoring do not influence predation risk. Evaluating the impact of cameras on predation risk is critical prior to their use, as individual study areas may differ in terms of predator species and behaviour.</p> 2021-03-16T17:41:55-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC Hydrological Analysis of Municipal Source Water Availability in the Canadian Arctic Territory of Nunavut 2021-03-21T08:25:30-06:00 Jenny Hayward Lindsay Johnston Amy Jackson Rob Jamieson <p class="p2">In the Canadian Arctic, the availability of sustainable drinking water supplies is threatened by pressures such as increasing populations, climate change, and the remote geographic nature of the communities. The objective of this study was to conduct a screening level vulnerability assessment of municipal drinking water supplies in the Canadian territory of Nunavut with consideration for climate change, population growth, and infrastructure changes. A hydrological analysis of primary drinking water supply watersheds was performed to evaluate the relative vulnerability level in 24 Nunavut communities. We used a water balance model to predict annual water yield from each watershed using historical and projected future climate data. Approximately 25% of the study communities were projected to experience high vulnerability to water shortages by 2070, defined as using greater than 40% of available water from their source watershed on an annual basis. A medium level of vulnerability (using 20% – 40% of annual available water) was determined for 8% of the study communities and a moderate level for 12% (using 10% – 20% of annual available water). A low vulnerability level to 2070 (using less than 10% of annual available water) was determined for 55% of the communities. The vulnerability level was primarily influenced by source watershed size. The results of this study could be used as a component of a proactive strategy to help address water security issues in Nunavut.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2021-03-16T18:09:17-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC Range Extension of Northern Form Dolly Varden (<i>Salvelinus malma malma</i>) to the Upper Arctic Red River Watershed, Northwest Territories, Canada 2021-03-21T08:25:04-06:00 Kris W.C. Maier Neil J. Mochnacz Robert Bajno Andrew J. Chapelsky Peter Rodger James D. Reist <p class="p2">Northern form Dolly Varden is an anadromous char with significant ecological value found in high-gradient rivers of the Western Arctic. Because of declines in population abundance, Dolly Varden was recently designated as “Special Concern” under the federal <em>Species at Risk Act</em>. This species is also of great cultural and dietary significance to Indigenous Peoples of many communities in the Western Arctic; thus, expanding knowledge of the distribution, biology, and essential habitat is an important priority. We present results of a fisheries survey in the headwaters of the Arctic Red River, Northwest Territories, that focused on confirming the presence of Dolly Varden. Of 143 fish captured among 12 sampling locations, two were Arctic grayling (<em>Thymallus arcticus</em>), 33 were slimy sculpin (<em>Cottus cognatus</em>), and 108 were char identified using qualitative and quantitative morphological features. A subsample of 44 char voucher specimens were frozen whole and later identified using a linear discriminant function (LDF) based on meristic counts and morphological measurements, and a mitochondrial DNA genetic marker. LDF scores indicated that char collected in the Arctic Red River were northern form Dolly Varden. Genetic analysis showed that all but one char possessed mitochondrial DNA sequences common in northern form Dolly Varden from Canada. Our results confirm the presence of Dolly Varden in the Arctic Red River headwaters, extending the confirmed known distribution of this taxon in the Northwest Territories approximately 450 km south and 100 km east of previously delimited areas.</p> 2021-03-16T18:25:12-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC Determinants of Gray Wolf (<i>Canis lupus</i>) Sightings in Denali National Park 2021-03-21T08:27:16-06:00 Bridget L. Borg Stephen M. Arthur Jeffrey A. Falke Laura R. Prugh <p class="p2">Wildlife viewing within protected areas is an increasingly popular recreational activity. Management agencies are often tasked with providing these opportunities, yet quantitative analyses of factors influencing wildlife sightings are lacking. We analyzed locations of GPS-collared wolves and wolf sightings from 2945 trips in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, USA, to provide a mechanistic understanding of how viewing opportunities are influenced by attributes of wolves and physical, biological, and harvest characteristics. We found that the presence of masking vegetation, den site proximity to the road, pack size, and presence of a wolf harvest closure adjacent to the park affected wolf sightings, and the influence of den proximity on sightings depended on harvest management. Wolf sightings increased with den site proximity to the road in years with a harvest closure adjacent to the park but not in the absence of the closure. The effect of the harvest closure on sightings was similar in magnitude to an increase in pack size by two wolves or a more than a two-fold decrease in masking vegetation. These findings were consistent across a 10-fold change in spatial resolution. Quantitative analysis of the factors influencing wildlife sightings provides valuable insight for agencies tasked with managing viewing opportunities.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2021-03-16T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC The River Alazeya: Shifting Socio-Ecological Systems Connected to a Northeastern Siberian River 2021-03-21T08:23:14-06:00 Tero Mustonen Vyacheslav Shadrin <p class="p2">One of the most remote Arctic locations, Andryushkino village of Yukaghir and Even peoples is located on the shore of the river Alazeya in northeastern Siberia, in the Lower Kolyma Republic of Sakha-Yakutia, Russia. The community is at the nexus of large-scale Arctic social and climate change resulting from economic shifts, permafrost melt events, and high temperatures. In this study, we approach Indigenous knowledge of climate impacts to water by investigating the role of the river Alazeya, which has enabled human life to thrive, given rise to the Indigenous governance of landscapes in the past, and today serves most of the Indigenous peoples in the region for their culture, food security, and well-being. To do this, we offer an ambitious system-change analysis of the socio-ecological context of the river basin and community by exploring oral histories recorded in the community between 2005 and 2020, combining them with relevant scientific literature and weather data from Russian measurement stations to detect and point to key messages of impacts. Our results confirm that the speed and extent of climate warming have increased since 1985. The flood event of 2007 in the village has especially been seen as a major climate change-induced catastrophe. We focus on the drivers of change from local history to present. We also investigate alternatives for future development of resilience and support for the Yukaghir culture, traditional ways of life, and language.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2021-03-18T11:41:51-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC New Insights on Polar Bear (<i>Ursus maritimus</i>) Diet from Faeces based on Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies 2021-03-21T08:22:47-06:00 Johan Michaux Markus Dyck Peter Boag Stephen Lougheed Peter van Coeverden de Groot <p class="p2">Practical tools to quantify range-wide dietary choices of the polar bear have not been well developed, thus impeding the monitoring of this species in a changing climate. Here we describe our steps toward non-invasive polar bear diet determination with the optimization of 454 pyrosequencing of a 136 base pair (bp) mitochondrial cytochrome <em>b </em>(<em>cytb</em>) fragment amplified from the extracts of captive and wild polar bear faeces. We first determine the efficacy, reliability, and accuracy of our method using five faecal samples from a captive polar bear fed a known diet at the Canadian Polar Bear Habitat in Cochrane, Ontario, Canada; 19 samples from three polar bears at the Metro Toronto Zoo, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and seven samples from seven wild (unfed) polar bears from a holding facility in Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. We report 91% overall success in amplifying a 136 bp <em>cytb </em>amplicon from the faeces of polar bears. Our DNA analyses accurately recovered the vertebrate diet profiles of captive bears fed known diets. We then characterized multiyear vertebrate prey diet choices from free-ranging polar bears from the sea ice of the M’Clintock Channel polar bear management unit, Nunavut, Canada (n = 117 from an unknown number of bears). These data point to a diet unsurprisingly dominated by ringed seal (<em>Pusa hispida</em>) while including evidence of bearded seal (<em>Erignathus barbatus</em>), harbour seal (<em>Phoca vitulina</em>), muskox (<em>Ovibos moschatus </em>ssp.), Arctic fox (<em>Vulpes lagopus</em>), wolf (<em>Canis lupus</em>), Herring Gull (<em>Larus argentatus</em>), and Willow Ptarmigan (<em>Lagopus lagopus</em>). We found low levels of contamination (&lt; 3% of sequences when present) and suggest specific process improvements to reduce contamination in range-wide studies. Together, these findings indicate that next-generation sequencing-based diet assessments show great promise in monitoring free-ranging polar bears in this time of climate change.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> <p class="p2"><span class="s1"><span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></span></p> 2021-03-19T21:16:53-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC Diplomacy and the Arctic Council, by Danita Catherine Burke 2021-03-21T08:24:36-06:00 Heather Exner-Pirot 2021-03-16T22:11:10-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC Masters and Servants: The Hudson’s Bay Company and its North American Workforce, 1668–1786, by Scott P. Stephen 2021-03-21T08:24:08-06:00 George Colpitts 2021-03-16T22:15:22-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC Books Received and Papers to Appear in ARCTIC 2021-03-21T08:23:41-06:00 Patricia WELLS 2021-03-16T22:21:47-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC WESTON BLAKE JR. (1930 – 2021) 2021-03-25T08:36:17-06:00 Thomas Frisch 2021-03-19T21:22:55-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC The Relationship between Kanngiqtugaapik/Clyde River and Greenpeace: An Interview with Mayor Jerry Natanine 2021-03-21T08:21:28-06:00 Danita Catherine Burke 2021-03-20T08:50:40-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC AINA NEWS 2021-03-21T08:21:54-06:00 Patricia Wells 2021-03-19T21:45:30-06:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ARCTIC