ARCTIC 2020-11-17T00:05:46-07:00 Melanie Paulson Open Journal Systems <p><em>Arctic</em> is North America's premier journal of northern research! Now in its seventh decade of continuous publishing, <em>Arctic</em> contains contributions from any area of scholarship dealing with the polar and subpolar regions of the world. Articles in <em>Arctic</em> present original research and have withstood intensive peer review. <em>Arctic</em> also publishes reviews of new books on the North, profiles of significant people, places and northern events, and topical commentaries.</p> Use of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea by Bowhead Whales (Balaena mysticetus) Tagged with Satellite Transmitters, 2006 – 18 2020-09-30T08:22:14-06:00 Justin Olnes John J. Citta Lori T. Quakenbush John C. George Lois A. Harwood Ellen V. Lea Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen <p class="p1">We used satellite telemetry to examine bowhead whale movement behavior, residence times, and dive behavior&nbsp;in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, 2006 – 18. We explored the timing and duration of use of three subregions (western, central, eastern) within the Alaskan Beaufort Sea and applied a two-state switching state-space model to infer bowhead whale behavior state as either transiting or lingering. Transiting whales made direct movements whereas lingering whales changed direction frequently and were presumably feeding. In spring, whales migrated across the Alaskan Beaufort Sea in 7.17 ± 0.41 days, primarily off the continental shelf over deep water. During the autumn migration, whales spent over twice as much time crossing the Alaskan Beaufort Sea than in spring, averaging 18.66 ± 2.30 days, spending 10.05 ± 1.22 days in the western subregion near Point Barrow. Most whales remained on the shelf during the autumn migration and frequently dove to the seafloor, where they spent 45% of their time regardless of behavioral state. Consistent dive behavior in autumn suggests that the whales were looking for food while migrating, and the identification of lingering locations likely reflects feeding. The lack of lingering locations in the eastern and central subregions suggests that prey densities are rarely sufficient to warrant whales pausing their migration for multiple days, unlike in the western subregion near Point Barrow, where bowhead whales regularly&nbsp;lingered for long periods of time.</p> 2020-09-28T16:42:49-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 ARCTIC Strengthening Sustainable Northern Food Systems: Federal Policy Constraints and Potential Opportunities 2020-11-17T00:05:46-07:00 Amanda Wilson Charles Z. Levkoe Peter Andrée Kelly Skinner Andrew Spring Sonia Wesche Tracey Galloway <p class="p1">This paper explores how Canadian federal policy and frameworks can better support community-based&nbsp;initiatives to reduce food insecurity and build sustainable food systems in the North. Through an examination of the current state of food systems infrastructure, transportation, harvest, and production in the Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Nunavik, and Nunatsiavut, we argue in favour of a multi-sector approach that supports diversified food systems, including traditional/country food production and distribution, in a way that values and prioritizes community-led initiatives and Indigenous peoples’ self-determination and self-governance. The challenge of developing sustainable, northern food systems requires made-in-the-North solutions that are attuned to cultural, geographic, environmental, and political contexts. Recent policy developments suggest some progress in this direction, however much more work is needed. Ultimately, sustainable northern food systems must be defined by and for Northerners at community, local, and regional levels, with particular&nbsp;attention paid to treaty rights and the right to self-determination of First Nations and other Indigenous communities.</p> 2020-09-28T16:58:04-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 ARCTIC Promoting a Culturally Safe Evaluation of an On-the-Land Wellness Program in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region 2020-09-30T08:17:53-06:00 Mary Ollier Audrey R. Giles Meghan Etter Jimmy Ruttan Nellie Elanik Ruth Goose Esther Ipana <p class="p1">In 2017, the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation partnered with a diverse research advisory team to understand how&nbsp;Project Jewel, a land-based program in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, could be evaluated in a way that promotes cultural safety (i.e., in a way that addresses the social, historical, and economic contexts that shape participants’ experiences). We used community-based research methodology to approach the study, through which semi-structured interviews, sharing circles, and photovoice were identified by the community advisory board and research advisory team as appropriate research methods for this project. After piloting and evaluating these methods, we then used thematic analysis to analyze the data, which included images and transcripts, to identify the components of a culturally safe evaluation: centring the land, building relationships, working with words and pictures, and promoting benefit over harms through program aftercare. Our community-based research and findings provide a template of a meaningful evaluation framework that other on-the-land programs can use if&nbsp;contextualized within local cultural practices and values.</p> 2020-09-28T22:58:15-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 ARCTIC Do North American Migratory Barren-Ground Caribou Subpopulations Cycle? 2020-11-09T21:07:05-07:00 Eric Bongelli Martha Dowsley Victor M. Velasco-Herrera Mitchell Taylor <p class="p1">Unlike all other members of the deer family, subpopulations of barren-ground caribou (<em>Rangifer tarandus&nbsp;</em><em>groenlandicus</em>) are typically sine-cyclic. We used Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC) to rank competing population dynamics models for 11 North American barren-ground caribou subpopulations. Nine of these subpopulations were best described as sine-cyclic with periods ranging from a minimum of 26 years (Bluenose-East and Porcupine) to a maximum of 55 years (Western Arctic); and amplitudes ranging from a minimum of 8 455 (Cape Bathurst) to a maximum of 327 432 (George River). Time series estimates of subpopulation abundance generated by the sine cycle models showed good correspondence to published subpopulation estimates of abundance for all nine sine-cyclic subpopulations (<em>r </em>= 0.978; <em>p </em>&lt; 0.001). Lack of demographic closure (migration between subpopulations) was evident in both of the subpopulations that were not identified as sine-cyclic. Barren-ground caribou subpopulation amplitudes were mostly determined by subpopulation total range size and summer range productivity (R<span class="s1">2 </span>= 0.962; <em>p </em>&lt; 0.001) and subpopulation periods were mostly determined by amplitude, total range productivity, and land surface temperature (R<span class="s1">2 </span>= 0.950; <em>p </em>&lt; 0.001). Time series estimates of subpopulation abundance generated from the respective environmental regression models were highly correlated (<em>r </em>= 0.964; <em>p </em>&lt; 0.001) to the published subpopulation estimates of abundance for the set of 9 sine-cyclic subpopulations. Extended (&gt; 3 generations) subpopulation declines are a natural feature of cyclic barren-ground caribou subpopulations. Trends in species abundance based on pooled&nbsp;assemblages of asynchronous cyclic subpopulations should be interpreted with caution.</p> 2020-09-29T09:34:09-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 ARCTIC Unpacking Community Participation in Research: A Systematic Literature Review of Community-based and Participatory Research in Alaska 2020-09-30T08:21:25-06:00 Anuszka Mosurska James D. Ford <p class="p1">Although concepts of “community” and “participation” have been heavily critiqued in the social sciences, they&nbsp;remain uncritically applied across disciplines, leading to problems that undermine both research and practice. Nevertheless, these approaches are advocated for, especially in Indigenous contexts. To assess the use of these concepts, we conducted a systematic literature review of community-based and participatory research in Alaska, USA, where social change has been rapid, having ramifications for social organization, and where participatory and community-based approaches are heavily advocated for by Alaska Native organizations. Conceptualizations of community and participation were extracted and analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The majority of articles showed a lack of critical consideration around both terms, although this was especially the case in reporting around community. While this lack of critical consideration could lead to issues of local elite co-opting research, an alternative interpretation is that Western sociological literature surrounding&nbsp;community is not transferable to Indigenous contexts.</p> 2020-09-28T17:07:55-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 ARCTIC “We Hardly Have Any Moose Around Here Anymore”: Climate Change and the Barriers to Food Security in the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories 2020-09-30T08:21:02-06:00 Paulina Ross Courtney W. Mason <p class="p1">Rural Indigenous communities across northern Canada are experiencing high rates of food insecurity as a result&nbsp;of complex constraints to accessing quality market foods and engaging in local food procurement. Climate change is impacting the ability of northern Indigenous communities to acquire, access, and utilize food that is culturally relevant and sustainable. This research examines the interconnected sociocultural, political, economic, and environmental challenges related to food security in the community of Fort Providence situated in the Dehcho Region of the Northwest Territories. The objective of this research was to consult with community members to understand the impacts of climate change on local food procurement and to explore the myriad challenges related to food security. We utilized Indigenous methodologies to guide all aspects of the research. Evidence was collected using semi-structured interviews with Dene and Métis Elders, knowledgeable land-users, and other community members. Our research demonstrates that changing hydrological systems and ecosystems, unpredictable weather patterns, the presence of non-local harvesters, the loss of traditional knowledge, and the high costs of living in a rural northern community impact local food security. The results of this research can inform policies that reflect the needs of residents, address the distinct barriers to procuring local food, and provide a basis for understanding the complexities of food&nbsp;security in the Dehcho and other subarctic regions.</p> 2020-09-28T17:17:40-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 ARCTIC Underwater Ambient Noise in Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen, during the Summers of 2015 and 2016 2020-09-30T08:20:39-06:00 Muthuraj Ashokan Ganesan Latha Ayyadurai Thirunavukkarasu <p class="p1">Underwater ambient noise was measured in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during the summers of 2015 and 2016 to&nbsp;understand the contribution of iceberg bubbling, iceberg calving, and shipping noise to the acoustic environment of the fjord. Comparison of the ambient noise data for the months of August, September, and October showed that average noise levels were similar, although the average noise level for 2015 was ~9 dB higher than in 2016 because of higher shipping noise. Maximum ambient noise was produced at frequencies less than 10 kHz during both summers. Spectrograms of iceberg calving noise showed that it occurred in the frequency below 500 Hz. Shipping noise was seen in the band below 600 Hz, and iceberg bubbling noise was detected in the band above 400 Hz. Instrument noise was observed in the frequency 400 Hz. It is clear that&nbsp;ice breaking and shipping contribute substantially to ambient noise in Kongsfjorden.</p> 2020-09-28T17:28:31-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 ARCTIC Hunters on the Track: William Penny and the Search for Franklin, by W. Gillies Ross 2020-09-30T08:22:37-06:00 Alison Freebairn 2020-09-28T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 ARCTIC Harold Innis on Peter Pond: Biography, Cultural Memory, and the Continental Fur Trade, by William J. Buxton 2020-09-30T08:20:16-06:00 John Sandlos 2020-09-28T18:04:09-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 ARCTIC North by Nuuk: Greenland After Rockwell Kent, by Denis Defibaugh AND When the Colour Ceases to be Just a Colour: Rockwell Kent’s Greenland Paintings, by Erik Torm 2020-10-12T17:36:31-06:00 Jake Milgram Wien 2020-09-28T18:10:49-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 ARCTIC Books Received and Papers to Appear in ARCTIC 2020-09-30T08:19:30-06:00 Patricia Wells 2020-09-28T22:24:37-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 ARCTIC WILLIAM B. KEMP (1936 – 2020) 2020-09-30T08:19:02-06:00 Hugh Brody George W. Wenzel 2020-09-28T22:30:50-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 ARCTIC Reflecting on 17 Years of Working Together: Notes from a Presentation to the Special Senate Committee on the Arctic 2020-11-17T00:05:43-07:00 Theo Ikummaq Gita Ljubicic 2020-09-28T22:41:55-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 ARCTIC AINA News 2020-09-30T08:18:16-06:00 Patricia Wells 2020-09-28T22:47:01-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 ARCTIC